A Natural Flavor From it’s Branch to Your Table


  • What is olive oil?


    Olive oil is fruit oil obtained from only the fruits of olive trees (Olea europaea sativa Hoffm. et Link) through chemical-free mechanical processes, which is consumable in raw form and liquid at room temperature.   


    The most important product obtained from the olive is olive oil, with a production volume 1,6 - 2,6 million tons per year in the word, 75-80% of which is consumed by the producer countries. The remaining 20-25% part is presented to international markets. Olive oil production of our country ranges from 40 thousands to 200 thousands according to the years.  


    Olive oil is fruit oil obtained from the fruit juice obtained from mashed and pressed olives. Olive oil production process is completely mechanical and does not include chemical processing stages. There are three major olive oil types. Extra virgin olive oil: the superior quality olive oil consumable in the raw from, mostly usable in salads and sauces. Refined olive oil: refined by physical methods, with increased taste and reduced acidity rate. Refined olive oil is mostly used in cooking; in addition, it is used in countries unused to olive oil taste, such as Russia and America. Riviera type olive oil: a blend of 10-20% natural olive and refined olive oil, primarily used for frying and cooking.  


    %99, 8 of olive oil is triglycerides. 14% of these triglycerides is saturated, 72% unsaturated and 12% multiple saturated fatty acids. A kilogram of olive oil additionally includes 300 grams of phenols and 150 milligrams of tocopherol (known as Vitamin E). Compared to other cooking fats, olive oil contains larger amounts of mono-saturated fatty acids, most notably oleic acids.  


    It is noteworthy that risks of cardiovascular diseases and cancer are considerably low in Mediterranean countries where olive oil consumption is the highest. Recently, the role of cholesterol in the development of cardiovascular diseases is much well known.  In the blood, cholesterol is transported by two groups of lipoproteins, LDL and HDL. Higher metabolism rate of HDL “good cholesterol” in liver reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease development. On the other hand, LDL “bad cholesterol” is one of the major causes of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, maintenance of low LDL and high HDL levels will protect human body from serious cardiovascular diseases. An olive oil-based diet will lower LDL and increase HDL, which will assists the recovery in the development of cardiovascular diseases.


    Many epidemiological studies suggest that olive oil provide large benefits in the reduction of cancer risk.  Any kind of oil which has been repeatedly heated to its smoking point will lose its natural antioxidants and begin to accumulate free radicals and other cancer causing substances. However, olive oil is known to contain phenol compounds and more antioxidants that have the ability to quell free radicals.   


    Budiyanto et al from Kanazawa University of Japan, studied the effects of olive oil on the skin of rats, exposed to cancer inducing ultraviolet radiation. They distributed the rats into three groups; they spread no olive oil onto the skins of animals in the first group, while spreading onto the skins of the second group during pre-radiation, and of the third group during post-radiation. They found that cancer development was lower in post-radiation olive oil group.  


    God, the Powerful and Eternal, knowing our hearths, vessels and cancer mechanism, stored the remedy in the body of a fruit of a tree standing next to us. It is believed that olive oil has other unexplored important characteristics. As far as these characteristics are explored, olive oil consumption, in addition, its use for the development of new medicines and therapy methods will increase. Moreover, olive oil has a widespread use in cosmetic industry as an additive. Anyhow, olive oil has been in use for long times by people in various hair and skin diseases.  


    Although olive oil has such lots of benefits and a considerable production volume in our country, it is unfortunately consumed insufficiently by people of our country.









    Naturel Sızma Olive oil

    Huile d’olive

    vierge extra

    Extra virgin

    olive oil

    Olio d’oliva  vergine extra

    Aceite de Oliva virgen extra

    Naturel Birinci Olive oil

    Huile d’olive vierge

    Virgin olive oil

    Olio d’oliva vergine

    Aceite de oliva virgen

    Naturel İkinci Olive oil

    Huile d’olive vierge courante

    Ordinary virgin

    olive oil

    Olio d’olivavergine corrente

    Aceite de oliva virgen corriente

    Rafine Olive oil

    Huile d’olive raffinée

    Refined olive oil

    Olio d’olivaraffinato

    Aceite de oliva refinado

    Riviera Olive oil

    Huile d’olive

    Olive oil

    Olio d’oliva

    Aceite de oliva


  • Olive Oil Designations


    Olive oil is classified in three major categories according to the method of production. Virgin oil, refined oil, and blends of virgin and refined olive oil.  


    Virgin oil

    Virgin olive oils are the pure oils, with color ranging from green to yellow and with natural essence and flavor, obtained from the fruit of the olive tree completely and only through mechanical or other physical means under thermal and other conditions, that do not lead to alterations in the oil, and which have not undergone any physical or especially chemical treatments, other than washing, decantation, centrifugation and filtration. In other words it is absolutely “natural oily fruit juice”, completely obtained through the physical processes either in press or continue system Oils with an acidity grade lower than 3.3 are the most valuable oils for health. "what is acidity grade?”: proportion of “oleic acid” content in 100 gr of olive oil. Simply, olive oil is a combination of two organic matters, glycerin and oleic acid. However oleic acid does not dissolve in the glycerin completely, some of it remains “free”. Good and tasteful oil is has a lowest free acid content. High free acidity makes the taste bitter. Here is the acidity grade of oil! Virgin olive oils are classified in four classes according to the acidity grade, International Olive oil Council (IOOC) and Institute of Turkish Standards: Extra virgin, virgin, ordinary virgin and lampant.  


    Extra virgin olive oil

    Generally it is obtained from a chemical-free, first cold-press of early harvested olives, under the most suitable temperature conditions. This entirely mechanical and chemical-free process allows the flavor, essence and vitamins within the olive fruit pass into the oil unchanged. Using this “finest” oil with only 1 percent acidity or below in cooking from my account is a “murder”. It will be the best to consume this elegant oil in raw, due to its fruitiest, slightly bitter flavor and natural green color as it is generally processed at early harvest. It is generally used to improve directly or by means of a sauce, the taste of salads, pre-cooked macaroni, and vegetable or fish dishes. Olive oil with an acidity percentage closest to zero and the superior result of first and gentle pressing of best olives is called “extra virgin” in English, “natürel sızma” in Turkish. Only 3% of olive production in Turkey falls into this category. Its price, of course, is higher than the others.  


    Virgin olive Oil

    Oils with “very slight defects” and with a higher acidity are generally called as “natural” or solely as “virgin”, in other word, as pure oils. Obtained from the first pressing generally using hot water, these olive oils have acidity between 1 and 2. With a bitter taste compared to extra virgin oils, this category olive oil production comprises approximately 12% of the Turkish olive oil production volume.  


    Ordinary virgin olive Oil

    Oils with “slight defects” and with and acidity percentage between 2 and 3.3 are in this category, holding a 15% share in the natural olive oil production of our country.  



    Olive oils in this category, which can be expressed, otherwise as oils for “illumination” or “lamp use”, have “unacceptable defects”. This term is used for the oils with acidity more than 3.3, moldy taste and defects. They do not fit for direct consumption. They require refine and elimination of undesired flavor or essence for a healthier consumption. Between you and me, only the low acidity is not a sufficient criterion for the quality of olive oil, it should also have a good flavor and taste. Therefore, extra virgin, virgin or ordinary olive oils with acidity lower than 3.3 but with bad taste and essence also need refinement similar to lampant oils. Then these oils are used for the preparation the Riviera oils obtained from blending of natural and refined oils. Unfortunately, 70% of the olive oils produced in our country are such poor quality oils. Moreover, 6% of that are “soap oils”. Nevertheless, soap oil percentage was 12 in 1970. Therefore, we can say that there has been an important improvement in the quality of olive oil since that date.  


    In Turkey, some leading Companies such as Tariş, Marmarabirlik, Kristal, Komili, Kırlangıç, Vakıflar produce extra virgin olive oil using continue system. But still the finest oils are the local origin oils produced by traditional methods. However, this production has a very low volume and marketing capacity, also limited to consumption only in a local scale.  


    Refined olive oil

    Olive oils obtained from “refinement” of virgin olive oils not fit for consumption due to the high acidity, bad taste or essence, without leading an alteration in their initial glyceridic structure.  Poor quality virgin olives require refinement for their use in cooking or frying. Bear in the mind that, refined oil is also originally fine but defected oil. For instance, it has a darker color, high acidity, bad taste and essence, because of undesired organism growth. 


    Through mechanical refining procedures in the factory the compounds leading to poor quality in the oil with high acidity are removed. Free acids are eliminated by various methods: distillation in higher temperatures, high temperature vacuum, distillation with water vapor (neutralization); vacuum cooling and bleaching and deodorization. In brief, refining is a kind of quality improving procedure; additive-free termination of the undesired characteristics of the oil. Defected oil is now fit for consumption. Then, this acid-free, colorless, odorless oil is blended with a superior quality olive oil for the restoration of its initial biological characteristics. Although this fine and light oils according to international norms are not much favored by olive oil gourmets in Turkey, their consumption seems to become widespread in countries getting used to olive oil newly, such as USA and Russia.


    Type olive oil

    A blend of refined olive oil and virgin olive oil, fit for consumption as cooking oil. “Mixture” or “blend” olive oils are classified into two categories:


    Olive oil

    A blend of, for example, 80-90% “refined oil” and 10-15% “virgin oil”. In addition to the ration of blend, an acidity not more than 3, good characteristic taste and essence and natural color, of course, play an important role in olive oil production.  Especially is used in frying and cooking. Maximum acidity is 1, 5.


    Olive oil type A

    This oil has a blend similar to olive oil. But the maximum acidity percentage is 2. With ıS% share in Turkish olive oil production, the quality and taste of this oil depends on that of virgin oil blended and as well to the superiority of the refining technology in the production facility.   

  • Acidity measurement of olive oil


    Acidity, quality, taste, essence and color of olive oil depends on climate, characteristics of field, soil fertility, variety of olive, tree care, olive pests, status of pest struggle, type of fertilizer, methods of harvesting and transportation, time elapsed from harvesting to the processing, washing of olive, mashing techniques.  


    Usually a well equipped laboratory is not a must for the measurement of the acidity of an olive oil sample. Following equipment is adequate for this purpose: a glass pipette, a glass measuring cylinder, and a glass balloon. Chemical substances: some volume of alcohol ether and acidity detection solution, obtainable from any pharmacy… 


    First, draw a sample from the oil using a metal cup specially designed for that purpose. Introduce 10 gr of oil into glass measuring cylinder. Introduce 30 gr of alcohol ether and add it to the oil and mix well. On the other hand, draw olive oil acidity detection solutions into pipette and adjust the decimal indicator to zero. Place the balloon under the pipette. Open the switch of the pipette, allow some solution drop and close the switch. Drop the solution until the mixture in the balloon become red permanently.  


    Check the pipette, indicator is at 1 s dizyem; as ı O dizyem indicates one acid, the acidity of this oil is one and half. Keep in the mind that oil with superior quality become red rapidly. Oil with high acidity becomes red later, i.e. as in the “Lampant” or “Soap” oil.  


    Among the other things, bear in the mind that the color of the pure oil starts to become cloudy at 10°C, rapidly coagulates at +5° - +4°C and solidifies at from 0° to -6°C. Solidified oil dissolves in the room temperature. Following traditional examination method used by some of the old experienced tradesmen purchasing olive oil in Edremit; draw samples from various oil cans, put them in a metal plate, prepare a wool wick, burn the wicks simultaneously; check which wick burned longer and with lesser smoke, showing the highest quality olive oil. Wick in the fine olive oil with low acidity burns longer than the defected olive oil with high acidity.  


    All extra virgin olive oils with an acidity rate below one and close to zero are of course superior oils. But nonetheless they can show variation in color, essence and taste, according to the region, geography, climate, early or late harvesting, even year to year.  


    Taste of olive oil

    It is important to determine the quality of virgin olive oils. The initial step is the measurement of the acidity of these oils, which can be done by chemical analyses. However, low acidity should not be considered as the sole indication for the quality of oil; essence, color and taste parameters are also of another major importance; because, pure olive oil firstly appeals to our sensations. Organolpetic sensations, including color, taste, odor is the business of experts.  Experts determine whether the oil with a specific acidity fits to extra virgin oil standards or not. But, if the essence of oil is not good, there is no need to check its color or taste.  


    Organoleptic examination method

    Tasting or “organoleptic examination” of olive oil is an art, but it can also be fun and worth learning, which requires a certain amount of knowledge and quite lot of practice to objectively classify oils. According to IOOC an expert should avoid smoking or the use of perfumes, deodorants, perfumed soaps and lipstick, eat sweets or drink coffee within 30 minutes before or during the tasting. No problem for those who do not smoke, but smokers are obliged to follow some rules. Moreover, they should avoid eating something for 1 hour before the examination. In other words, they should keep their mouths and stomachs empty, during this 1 hour period. An expert should be dismissed from the examination if he/she suffers from flu, fever or other serious disease or a physiological distress problem, which would cause confusion during tasting.  


    Expert examiner expresses his/her determinations with reference to negative or positive attributes or uses quality scoring over 5 to 10, during the determination of color, flavor and essence, namely of the “organoleptic” characters of an olive oil. If there is a next sample to taste, he/she should chew a piece of apple to previous oil taste from his/her mouth.  


    For organolpetic examination of virgin cooking oils, previously prepared “taste profile forms” are used. “Taste intensity” is scored on a scale from 0 to 10, according to negative and positive parameters. Negative and positive parameters used by the expert during organoleptic examination of color, taste, or essence of an olive and noted down to a “taste profile form” for a coded sample are as follows:  


    Negative parameters: Musty, moist; moldy, vinegarish- winey, acidic- sour, turbid, metallic, rancid. “Other” includes following parameters: burnt-wood, massive/intense- metallic oil-olive-mill wastewater-salty (brine olive press taste) – sour (sour taste from dirty pressing bag) - earthy- wormy cucumber taste. “Tasting intensity” of a sample determined according to negative parameters should not exceed 2.5 in a 1-10 scale. If exceeds, this oil is not acceptable.  


    Positive parameters: Opposite to negative parameters “taste intensity” increase is a desired thing, which is in an indication of the superiority of the quality of oil. In other words, negative parameters “eliminate” the oil; on the other hand positive parameters such as fruity taste (freshness), bitter, sharp (passing of oil from throat) “elevates” the oil.  


    Organoleptic sense panel

    In order to determine the highest quality oil, a “degustation” or “organoleptic taste panel” is established. 15 ml samples are drawn from oils in the glasses, they are ordered from intense to light ones, and put in front of the experts sitting in different cabinets or away from each other. The identity, quality and varieties of oils, coded with letters or numbers are only known by the head expert. These oils should be kept at 28oC for the best organoleptic examination. Averages of personal assessments of each expert are calculated for each oil sample. The oil(s) with the highest score will be “the best oil(s)”. In brief; the best virgin olive oils are the ones with least negative parameter scores, while with high positive parameter score.  Olives with high negative parameters, with low testing intensity will be regarded as low quality olives.


    Examination by non expert persons

    Of course you, those trusting their tongue and nose, can do it amateur at your homes. How? Briefly; First of all keep in your mind that it is difficult for your taste organ to recognize more than a there or four oil varieties. Therefore, for the beginning do not exceed 4 or 5 samples. Another clue, you should at the beginning taste the “fruity”, namely “olive taste” oils. Draw sample from oil and put into glasses coded with number or letters, you should not know the identity or the quality of the oils to be tasted. Then take one of these glasses and put your hand on it and rotate the glass to wet the sides fully; warm the sides of the glass with the palms of your hands to liberate the volatile aromas; bring the oil as closely as possible to your nose and inhale slowly and deeply two or three times in succession, note your findings about its aroma, if necessary, repeat after about a minute. Than take a small sip of oil in your mouth.  


    Keep in your mind that different areas on the tongue, palate and throat involve in the perception of the primary tastes. Therefore, in order to determine the taste and intensity of the oil properly you should distribute the oil throughout the whole of your mouth cavity, including the apex and center and back of your tongue as well your teeth and palate. Finally drink the oil sample slowly; here, you should take “viscosity” of the oil sample into account, namely the “intensity” of the oil. Meanwhile, with your lips semi-closed inhale rapidly two or three times in succession to atomize the oil and enable the taste molecules penetrate all relevant regions of your mouth.  


    How did you find the fist oil sample sir? Did you like its taste and essence? For example what kind of flavors it associates? Apple, green pepper, almond or walnut? Musty or grass? You can realize the aforesaid taste parameters samples. Finally note down your scores on a paper.  


    It will be better to use a special assessment chart. For example, in a chart designed according to International Olive Oil Council (IOOC), you can check your assessment in the column designated for the corresponding parameter, choir, taste, color, essence, and score them over 5. (5: perfect, 4: very good 3: good, 2: medium, 1: poor)   


    Before tasting the next oil sample, you should clean your mouth as a professional expert to the taste of the previous one. How? A slice of apple is adequate. For some, a piece of bread is better, which is not true. Because bread ferment will slightly change the real taste of the oil, as well remaining starch between your teeth will lead you confuse the intensity of the oil.  


    Than collect the scores you gave for each sample, check the one with highest result, it is the best oil. For example, in the previous paragraph the score 4 refers to a high quality oil. But bear in mind that, the best oil is not considered among high quality oils.  If the oils examined conforms the quality standards every oils are good. Namely, no best oil but the good and bad oil. The rest is to your pleasure.  


    Furthermore, as quality cheese, quality oil is to your pleasure. For the rest, your job is not quality expert. But an other exam method you may try at your homes maybe useful in practice: As in the past as our olds were cooking the rice before buying one bag of rice,  you can try a virgin oil recommended to you at your homes; how does it for green salad, eggplant and potatoes salad? How mush does it improve the taste of the table olive, what flavor does it give with fish? Light or intense essence? Light or intense taste? What result does it yield with boiled squash, eggplant or grebe beans, or as a macaroni sauce? Conclusion: the oil fitting your pleasure best is the best quality oil...

  • Production and consumption


    Let’s first look at the statistics “olive oil” production about “Aegean statistical” in the early years of the Republic.  It does not reflect entire production of the country; at least it can give a hint:  


    In Turkey, before the World War II olive oil production was approximately 40 thousand per year; during the late periods of the war, it decreases to 25 thousands  tons, namely to the production volume in early periods of the Republic. In the last 50 years the production increased 3 folds reaching to 80 thousand tons per year. Our share in the world olive oil production was 2.8%, reaching to 6.9% in 1960 and decreasing to 4-5% in 1990.  


    The mean olive oil production in our country between 1980 and 1998 is 87 thousand tons per year. We have become one of the important producers of the world, following Spain, Italy and Greece along with Tunisia.  


    Considering annual harvest of other countries, we can see that the production is not certainly stabile: in addition to “low production year” and “high production year” olive oil harvests, dry climate, diseases or pest infestations lead to decreases in these countries. Production tables do not show everything. A consideration should be drawn on that Turkish olive oils have a higher quality than olive oils of Tunisia, Morocco and Syria where summer season is hooter...  


    On the other hand, Turkey, with a share of 3% in the world’s total olive oil consumption, is 8-9th. As to consumption per capita Turkey is 7-8th with 1-1.3 kg. However, as olive oil consumption is more widespread in west Anatolia, average consumption per capita of Turkey in Aegean and Mediterranean basis will exceed the 1-1.3 kg average, but of course can’t reach to the annual consumption of Greece of 21m kg per capita. Compared to the consumption in our country, annual consumption per capita in Italy, Spain, Libya, Tunisia, Syria is 12, 10, 10, 9 and 7 kg, respectively.  


    Turkey can be considered as a real “olive country” in table olive and olive oil production; unfortunately, Turkey is not entirely a real “olive oil country” except for few regions. Solid fat and other oil consumption is over 15 kg per capita per year, while olive oil consumption is less than 1.5 kg per year. Why? We will try to discuss this question in the section “Problems of Olive agriculture in Turkey”. But in advance we can say, Turkish people like olive very much but do not consume olive oil sufficiently.  


      Olive oil consumption per capital


    Consumption (Kg)
















  • Marmarabirlik Olive Oil


    Our cooperatives in Gemlik, Mudanya, Erdek, Orhangazi, İznik, Edincik, Mürefte and Marmara Island collect table olives from groves of the producers in these regions; following a ion process, small olives immediately undergo processing in our facilities with 100 tons of processing capacity per day.  


    Olives are firstly washed and leaves are removed using powerful aspirators; washed olives without removing their stones undergo grounding by means of hammer mills; finally olive paste is obtained. This paste is kneaded and heated in the mixer.  


    Knead and heated paste undergoes separation in the centrifuge decanter; oil, olive-mill wastewater and olive pomace are obtained. Separated olive and olive-mill wastewater undergo re-separation and clean fresh oil is obtained.  


    Obtained olive oil is stored in the stainless tanks for rest. Following rest for some time, it undergoes filtration through ksielgur and plate filters and filled in the packages.  


    MARMARABİRLİK Olive oil classification 

    Naturel Olive oil: obtained from olive fruit by means of chemical-free, mechanical and physical processes under suitable thermal conditions, that do not lead any alterations in the composition of the oil; consumable in the natural form as food.  


    Naturel Sızma Olive oil: has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, not more than 1.0 g per 100 gram.  


    Naturel Birinci Olive oil: has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, not less than 1.0 g and more than 2.0 g per 100 g.  


    Riviera Olive oil: a blend of refined and virgin olive oils, characteristics of which depends on the quality and portion of virgin and refined oil, which has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, not more than 1.5 g per 100 g.  


    Naturel olive vs Riviera

    Extra virgin (natural9 olive oil is obtained through completely chemical-free mechanical process; has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, not more than 1.0 g per 100 gram and is consumable in the raw form.


    Riviera is a blend of refined olive oil and virgin olive oil, which has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, not more than 1.5 g per 100 gram.  


    Our Olive oil packages

    Marmarabirlik markets the olive oil in 500 and 1000 cc flasks and 2 and 5 lt cans by means of automatic filling machine.

  • Olive Oil and Health


    Olive Oil and Health

    Olive oil has been widely used for the protection of health and against diseases through the times. It has been used especially for gall bladder diseases, for proper operation of gastrointestinal tract, for liver diseases, for bloat, analgesia, rachitism and baldness. 


    Olive oil is a miraculous food of the nature to human kind. This miraculous substance has lot of advantages for health. From childhood to old age, olive oil influences our health positively from many aspects.  


    Many scientific studies report that olive oil is one of the major foods providing hearth health benefits. In deed, frequency of hearth diseases is the least in Mediterranean countries, where the olive oil is the primary component of the diet. Olive oil is cholesterol-free food. It assists to lower “bad” (LDL) cholesterol level, while maintaining the “good” (LDL) cholesterol level of blood. However, other vegetable oils lower both the “bad” cholesterol and “good” cholesterol at the same time, which is a great advantage of olive oil. The major benefit provided by olive oil for hearth health is the declination in blood LDL cholesterol level. One of the major challenges of the hearth health, the “bad cholesterol” accumulates in the coronary arteries which lead serious cardiovascular diseases. Olive oil regulates cholesterol level in the blood and aids to prevent development of an obstruction in coronary arteries. But the benefits of olive oil for our cardiovascular system health are not only limited to aforesaid. Olive oil also regulates the tension. Besides especially recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, olive oil is also used for gastrointestinal system health. Warm or cold intake of olive oil will reduce the acidity in the stomach, which will lead recovery of ulcers on the stomach or duodenum wall.


    Furthermore, olive oil has been known as a natural medicine for tooth decay, skin care and other many diseases.  


    Vitamin reservoir


    Vitamin E in the olive oil prevents cancer development; it also does well for hair loss. Vitamin A, D, E and K, calcium, phosphor, potassium, sulfur, and magnesium, with some mineral in essential quantities such as ferro, zinc, and manganese promote bone development.  


    As we said before, olive oil lowers “bad cholesterol”, LDL, significantly, while increasing “good cholesterol”, HDL, in the blood. It as well lowers blood glucose level, which is a great benefit for patients suffering from diabetes. 


    Fats undergo digestion in intestines, not in the stomach. Olive oil is the easiest digestible oil among other vegetable oils. It also regulates intestine peristaltic. Because during digestion in the stomach olive oil, compared to other vegetable oils, does not lowers stomach acids required for digestion. In addition, olive oil has a positive influence on the major secretions required for the digestion. Moreover, olive has significant positive influence on gall bladder; it is the strongest substance inducing the contractions of gall bladder. Induced contractions will prevent gall bladder stone accumulation. Excessive bile accumulation inside the bladder is one of the major causes of the bladder stones. Increased bile secretion will improve digestion of oils within the alimentary tract. Olive oil also assists in the removal of cholesterol from gall bladder, which reduces gall bladder stone risk. Furthermore, olive oil prevents constipation and improves peristaltic performance of intestine tract; finally it prevents colon cancer. 


    Decomposition in vegetable oils during frying, especially as to increase in acidity and formation of health-threatening substances, is quicker and more intense due to their higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids; but thanks to very low mono-saturated composition, olive oils can maintain their initial composition for longer time and as well these oils are more durable to higher frying temperatures.  


    Olive oil improves taste of bread, pasta, cake, biscuits and pastry products, prevents them from hardening.  


    Olive oil for children health

    Nutrition for children should be regarded more importantly than that of for adults. Nutrition during childhood will influence the entire life of the child. Nutrition has a direct effect on the healthy and adequate development of brain during childhood. Oils are essential for child nutrition. Olive oil is the most suitable food for pregnant and nursing women. 


    Continuous cellular restoration is fundamental for life, which is rapid during childhood, with declination through life. Olive oil assists in the development of bone and teeth, restoration of cells and tissue, and slow downs aging.  


    There is a strong tie between nutrition and aging. Some oxidant substances come out during the metabolism of foods in our body for energy. These substances have negative affects on the cellular development, leading to acceleration in aging. Some substances called antioxidants, the negative effects of those oxidants. Olive oil including many antioxidant substances, primarily the vitamin E, assists in the cellular restoration, delaying aging of cells and tissues. Due to high antioxidant substance content, olive oil plays an important role in the development of brain and neurological system in infants and olds. In addition, it is more durable than other vegetable oils to higher temperatures, which makes it the most suitable oil for health.  


    Another problem with aging is calcification. Some minerals, including calcium, prevent calcification. Olive oil assists in the prevention of calcification by augmenting the effects of these minerals in the body.  

    Olive oil for diabetes

    Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, high glucose level, in the blood, which is caused by deficiency of insulin, the principle hormone that regulates uptake of glucose into the cells from blood.  Some most recent studies demonstrated that olive oil has important role in the prevention of some diabetes-born disorders in the body, the most important of which are cardiovascular disorders. In patients with diabetes, the blood “bad cholesterol” level is generally high. Olive oil regulates cholesterol, indirectly being beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular effects of diabetes. 


    Another major disorder produced by diabetes is the excessive oxidant substance formation during the digestion. As we have mentioned previously, olive oil reduces the negative effects of oxidants significantly by its high antioxidant content.            As well olive oil contributes in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the conclusion, olive oil is a suitable food for patients with diabetes.  


    “Light” and “intense” character of oils is closely related to their usage. False usage signifies the taste of the oil and inconsistent consumer can choose low-nutrition oil for only its low price  


    There are two types of fatty acids in oil, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids contain single bond between carbon atoms, unsaturated ones have double bonds. Unsaturated fats such as linoleic acid, which contains double bonds more than one, are not durable to heating process.  


    (World Health Organization (WHO) recommends fats containing fatty acids 30% of which is linoleic acid, for populations with high cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes incidence.  


    Olive oil is rich from unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds more than one. It especially includes high levels of linoleic acid. The percentage of linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid for human health with double bonds more than one, in the olive oil is 6-15.


    Olive oil is useful to use in raw form, cooking and frying. Olive oil contains substances that prevent oxidation reactions during frying.   


    Olive oil can retain its properties under suitable sunlight-proof and thermal (12°C-15°C) storing conditions for long years.