1- Care Works Through Months
1.1. Care works that should be done during February and January
In the gardens that olive harvesting has not finished yet, it should be finished. On these months, when air is convenient and soil is ready, pecking up the ground is very beneficial. This process of pecking eliminates the weeds and prepares soil for the rain during the spring. Moreover, it kills the eggs of insect in the soil.
After this process, soil can be cultivated by simple farming tools. It is very useful to learn the structure and mixture of soil before deciding on fertilizing the soil.
With this aim, soil should be taken from different parts of the area and these samples should be analyzed. According to the result of analyses, the proposed amount and type of the fertile should be used. Fertile activities with no analyses and information, unnecessary element can be given to the soil. This activity causes both waste of time and economic loss. Moreover, these unnecessary elements can prevent the use of other elements in the soil which can be needed by olive tree. Another important analysis to give the all elements that are needed by tree completely is leaf analysis. With this effective analysis, it can be pointed which elements olive tree needs. Both the soil and leaf analysis should be conducted and the fertile should be used properly according to the results from these analyses. It is a must to use fertile by following the instructors that are composed by taking result of analysis into account for healthy development of trees and economical gains. Winter disinfection can be done against coccidae.
1.2. Care works that should be done during March and April
Basic works that should be done on March and April are pruning, fertilizing, disinfection and cultivating. The most important one among these is pruning.
Pruning can be made in a period between harvest time and browse time in spring. However, early pruning is not recommended because it can cause early awakening of trees. This condition is very important especially for the regions such as Marmara which freeze can be harmful for olive in spring and winter.
It is also not recommended pruning after the awakening of trees, because in this period, some of the substitute commodities in olive tree are spent for shooting. So, late pruning detains browse and affect the plant negatively. On these grounds, the best adequate period for pruning is between late winter and early spring, namely February and March.
At regions that olive cancer is frequent, to prevent spread of the disease, pruning should be done in summer. In winter pruning, pruning tools should be disinfected regularly.
According to age of tree and the aim that is expected, three kinds of pruning can be done: shape pruning, crop pruning and rejuvenation pruning.
If there are olive trees at a high number, shape pruning can be made. Like other fruit trees, different shapes can be made on olive tree. The adequate shape for olive trees is “free goble”.
For the trees that are left for fertile, crop pruning should be done regularly every year. For crop pruning, first, bold, dead and rude parts should be cut. Pruning can be done from interior and cusp parts through exterior parts. Meanwhile, the branch at the downside among branches that are crushed and the branches that has disease also should be cut.
For the trees that lost its fertility and that are damaged in different ways, rejuvenation pruning should be done. It should not be finished in one year. It should last for 3 or 4 years. Because on these months, expansion starts, trees should be fertilized with a nitrous fertilizer. These fertilizers can be ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate.
The harmful activities of olive moth on the leaf, starts with the warmer weather conditions on March and April. To prevent this, insecticide should be used. Besides, trees should be protected with cupric chemicals and copper sulfate to prevent fungal diseases.
It is also necessary to fight against weeds in garden. For fighting against weed, soil should be pecked up. If it is planned to make a new garden, young olive trees should be planted on March.
1.3. Care works that should be done during May and June
If the weather is rainless on May and June, before the blooming time, watering should be started. Watering can be done in four different ways;
1. surface irrigation
2. furrow irrigation
3. rain irrigation
4. trickle irrigation
Especially areas that do not have enough water to apply other methods, trickle irrigation is the best solution.
Irrigation which is applied effectively has some advantages:
Rise in product quality and efficiency
Water that plant can need is kept at the root of plant.
Economization of fertilizers and labor work
New layers do not come into being, so need for soil working is minimized.
Erosion can be prevented.
Need for arraignment is eliminated.
After the spring rain or watering process, it is a necessity to fight against the weed that can be seen in their garden.
One of the most important issues of these months is to apply insecticide against olive moth to protect the flowers and fruits of the tree. When the
olive flowers are bud, female olive moths leave their eggs to buds. These larvas eat the pollination organ, so the number of flowers and efficiency decrease.
By following these periods, trees should be controlled. At this periods and when larva is seen on the tree, insecticides should be applied.
Olive moths can be harmful for the fruits as well. When the olive fruits develop, female olive moths leave their eggs to the joining point of fruit and stem. Larva can go into the seed of the fruit and eat the extract of seed and leave the fruit. Larva cause falls of the fruit because they break off the connection between fruit and stem. To prevent these harmful moths, these periods should be following carefully and an insecticide should be applied.
1.4. Care works that should be done during July and August
Because the fruit becomes fatty and bigger on July and August, irrigation should be done. Weed should be pecked up and insecticide should be applied. Insecticide should be applied also on these months because the harm caused by olive moth can be continued. Besides, olive should also protected by insecticides and white oil against larva that comes from coccidaes
The most important issue on these months is irrigation. Leaves can fade, olives can crinkle, stem can dry and detache, if irrigation is not done properly. On these months, soil also should be conserved by improving and pecking.
1.5. Care works that should be done during September and October
Insecticide process, irrigation and cultivation are the basic works that should be done on October and September. Especially on September olive flies leave their eggs to 1 mm inside of the fruit. Larves causes corruption of olive by taking nourishment from the olive. Because these corrupted olives can stay on the tree, they can be accumulated with healthy olives and as a result, the harvest can be low-quality and corrupted. Certainly such kind of harvest is not something we expect. To prevent this kind of a harvest, the periods that flies have activity should be followed and effective insecticides should be used. Moreover, it is a must to fight against fungus disease with cupric chemicals and copper sulfate.
Irrigation should continue according to weather conditions. Soil should be pecked up against weeds.
1.6. Care works that should be done during November and December
These months are the harvest time. With the maturation of the olive, harvest is started on November. Because the each olive grain does not get darken at the same time, harvest is not done in one go. At some years, it can continue until January or February. If the harvest is finished at an early time, soil should be pecked up deeply. Besides, if it is considered necessary, fertilizers with phosphor and potassium should be applied.
Cotton flea of olive: March – April – May – early June
Mixture of copper sulphate and lime: after harvest and pruning process, against early spring freeze (April – May)
After harvest: 2 – 3%
After pruning process: 1.5 – 2%
Against early spring freeze: 1 – 1.5%
Against early winter freeze: 1%
2.1. What is fertilizer?
All living things need energy to survive. They can supply this energy in different ways. Plants get the energy they need, from soil. They absorb oxygen, hydrogen, potassium, phosphor and water molecules in the soil with their lateral roots and tassels. These atoms are basic comestibles for plants. Absence or surplus of these atoms in the soil causes root diseases, growing diseases, becoming short of tree and inefficiency.
Beside these comestibles, plants also need some other elements such as magnesium, zinc, sulphur, boron, molybdenum. These elements have effects on roots, body, development of leaf and quality of fruit. Plants show absence of elements they need in various ways. (Growth backwardness, late blooming, low quality of fruit and shape of fruit, sallow leaf…)
2.2. Why we use fertilizers?
Plants get all elements they need through soil. However, because of several reasons such as heavy structure of soil, overirrigation and corruption of microorganism activities, they can not get these elements.
Absence of zinc, manganese, boron and iron, can cause blooming, pollination problems, darkening problem and death towards backward (becoming a “bush-like” plant). To keep growth of tree, we use fertilizers to make plant get the elements they need externally.
Nitrogen (N+2): is effective on root growth, blooming and fruit.
Phosphor (P+): is effective on leaf and body growth and branching and blooming.
Potassium (K+): has a role as catalyst and effect on quality of fruit growth.
2.3. Points that should be paid attention in fertilization
Fertilizers that contain nitrogen, phosphor, and potassium should be used on February and March, if the soil is not analyzed. Fertilizers should be covered after the process.
If only fertilizers that contain phosphor and potassium are used, holes should be digged. After fertilizers are placed in these holes, they should be covered. Because these fertilizers dissolve slowly, they should be placed close to the roots. The amount of fertilizers should be decided according to the size and age of tree. If soil is not analyzed, 3 – 4 kg composed fertilizers, 2- 3 kg fertilizers with phosphor, and 1 – 2 kg fertilizers with potassium should be used per tree. Besides, in every two or three years, 50 or 60 kg blasted shed fertilizers should be used and cover with soil by pecking.
For the soil that lacks lime, fertilizers that contain calcium are more suitable rather than fertilizers with ammonium nitrate.
Olive trees benefit most rapidly from fertilizers that contain nitrogen and potassium and most slowly from fertilizers that contain phosphor.
2.4. Suitable periods for fertilization
Composed fertilizers can be used between January and March, according to climate; other fertilizers can be used between late April and early May.
2.5. Fertilizers that are used for olive trees
1- Organic Fertilizers
2- Chemical fertilizers
A. Nitrogenous fertilizers
- Ammonium Sulfate (21%)
- Ammonium Nitrate (26%)
- Urea (46%)
B- Fertilizers with phosphor
- Super Phosphate (18%)
- Triple Phosphate (45%)
C- Fertilizers with potassium
- Potassium chloride (60%)
- Potassium sulfate (50%)
- Potassium nitrate (44%)
D- Composed Fertilizers
- DAP. (18.46)
Because of the increasing cost of chemical fertilizers and increase in the ratio of fertilizers used, producers seek new alternatives for fertilizers. Chicken fertilizers become an alternative after the new problem of faecal matters of poultry, whose number is really high.
Fowls are grown up for their meat and eggs. Our agrarians start to use these faecal matters in their fields with the method of trial and error. As a result, both cattle and chicken fertilizers are seen as very effective. However, the acid level of chicken fertilizers is measured as ph 3 – 5. These unprocessed fertilizers that have high acid level; have very efficient results at first use. However, its high acid level gives irrecoverable damages on soil and roots of tree at second and third attempts
Today, the ph degree of chicken fertilizers that we use should be between 5.5 and 6.5. We can reach this ph level by waiting fertilizers or adding lime to fertilizer to burn it. Unprocessed chicken fertilizers corrupt the structure of soil and increase the ph level of it. High ph level of soil has negative effect on efficiency and quality.
For soils that have 7.2 or more ph level, it can have positive effect on efficiency and quality. For soils that have a ph level between 5 and 7, it can have negative effect on efficiency and quality and cause desiccation and shedding of fruits.
If we plan to use chicken fertilizers, we should use it, regarding the advices of experts and results of analysis. So we can prevent the unrecoverable negative effects on soil and tree.
2.7. Methods of fertilization
2.7.1 Scattering method of fertilization
In this method, fertilizers are scattered around the tree and soil is blended gently. This method is usually used for nitrous fertilizers. Nitrous fertilizers that is scattered on soil should be blended to go inside the soil. Nitrous fertilizers that stand on the soil for a long time lose their effect.
2.7.2. Circle shaped dike method of fertilization
In this method, fertilizers are placed in a dike (with a depth about 20-25 cm and width about 40 cm) that is ditched around the tree and covered by soil.
This method is applied for the fertilizers that contain phosphor and potassium. Their movement under the soil is at minimum level, so placement closely to the roots is advised.
2.7.3. Single line hole method of fertilization
It is a method to decrease the labor work expense. In this method, fertilizers are replaced in holes (with a depth about 20-25 cm and width about 40 cm), that are ditched at a certain distance, equally and covered by soil.
In these holes whose long edges are parallel to the body, fertilizers that contain phosphor and potassium are used. Nitrous fertilizers are distributed on soil and blended with it.
2.7.4. Double line hole method of fertilization
Although the cost of this method is higher than single line hole method, this method is the best one for the root system of olive tree; because if the first line holes can be ditched at the level of first root area of olive tree and the second line holes can be ditched at the level of second root area of olive tree, tree can benefit from the fertilizers very efficiently.
In the holes that are ditched around the tree, fertilizers that contain phosphor should be used. Fertilizers that contain potassium are distributed on soil and blended with it.
2.7.5. Holes between lines method of fertilization
This is a method which is used for short olive trees. In this method fertilizers that contains phosphor and potassium, are placed to the dikes (with a depth about 20-25 cm, length about 2-3 m and width about 40 cm) that are ditched between trees and covered with soil.
Large extent of water need of trees is satisfied through rains. The need for water of olive tree is about 1 – 3 tons per year. Olive trees spend water through respiration and perspiration. Irrigation should be made on May, July and September for olive trees. If weather is dry on May and June, irrigation should be made before blooming. On July and August, because olive fruits get bigger and fatty, trees need water. Irrigation is a necessity also on these months. On September, there can be early fall freezes, so irrigation on this month should be done very carefully. Irrigation should be made at the first half of the month. Irrigation can be made in four different ways:
Especially if the water is not enough for other methods, trickle irrigation should be applied. After the spring rain or watering process, it is a necessity to fight against the weed that can be seen in their garden. Another important point is that irrigation should not be made on midday and field should be watered in parts.
Determination of irrigation time:
To determine of water need of the soil, we take 100 g of soil sample and add water to this sample until the sample become clay. Then weight of this sample is measured. After measuring, this sample is waited in the oven at 250 – 300 C for 15 minutes. The weight of the sample is measured again. The difference between two weights is the capacity of soil to hold water. If the result is between 1 and 10, the capacity of soil is very low and soil needs water. If the result is between 10 and 20, the capacity of soil is not very low but soil still needs water in certain periods. If the result is between 20 and 30, the capacity of soil is very close to ideal and soil needs water only once or twice for a year. If the result is more than 30, soil is a hardpan and irrigation is very useful, because soil can not hold much water, water can cause corruption and fungal disease on the roots of tree and even death of tree.
4- Pathogens and Pests
1-Olive Fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmelin)
Description and type of harm:
It is seen at all olive groves in our country and fly is the adult of this pest. Adults are in height of 4-6 mm and they are in colors of brown and honey-colored. Larva is in length of approximately 6-8 mm and it is limpid and white. Pupa has a barrel-shape and brown color.
During the winter they live 2-5 cm. under the ground as pupa or in forestry areas as adult. Adults are fed with sugary ingredients excreted by barky louses and leaf louses. When the ground heat increases to 10°C, adults start to appear and are fed with the sugary ingredients found in the around. Female adults copulate in the end of June and they bore a hole in depth of 0,5-1 mm on the side of big and oily olive fruits and place their eggs in these holes by their egg placing pipes. Each female places only one egg in each fruits. In some peak years they may place more eggs in the fruits. Hole places where the eggs are placed turn into a brown color in 1-2 days and this place is called as “DENT”. It is known that they may give birth for 3-4 generation in Marmara Region.
During the harmful larva period, they damage the fruit by eating the flesh and open galleries inside. They also cause such damages like decomposition, increasing acid and decreasing oil. In the epidemic years rate of the damage may reach up to 70%.
When the fruits are grew for the egg placing, increase in the number of caught adults should be determined. In case dent of 1% in brine types and 6% in oily types is detected, coating disinfection should be carried out.
In coating disinfection one of the below given stuff may be used.
Operative Material Name and Rate -Formulation -Dose (in 100 lt water)
Formothion, 336 g/l -EC -150 ml
Cyfluthrin, 50 g/l -EC -30 ml
Deltamethrin, 25 g/l -EC -25 ml
Deltamethrin, 120 g/l -EC -5.5 ml
Fenthion, 525 g/l -EC -100 ml
Trichlorfon, 80% -SP -125 g
2- Olive Moth (Prays oleae Bern.)
Description and type of harm
Adult form of this pest is butterfly and it is 7-8 mm long. There are black colored blots on the front wings and grey drips on the edges. Larva color is dirty white and yellowish and they are 0.8-1 cm long. Pupa is placed in a visible, loosely tissue and light colored cocoon.
They give birth 3 times a year as of in different phenologic periods of the olive tree. These are leaf, flower and fruit eggs.
a) Leaf Egg
Adults, coming from the larva, fed in the fruits, appears between September and December and place their eggs on the leaves. Larva comes out from the egg within 8-15 days, depending on the weather and goes into the leaf’s epidermis and spends the winter there. They come out at the end of February and are fed by eating new growth edges and the leaves. Adults prepare cocoon on the edge leaves and become pupa again.
b) Flower Egg
Adults, coming from leaf egg, place their eggs on the new growth flower buds on April and May. Larva comes out within 8-10 days and goes into the flower buds and is fed here. Larva can damage 30-40 buds. Growth larva prepares a net within the buds and becomes pupa.
c) Fruit Egg
Adults come out on the flower egg fo the olive fruits in the bigness of 5 numbered drop shot at the end of May and beginning of June and place their eggs on basin leaves of the fruit. Larva coming out of the egg causes pepper outpour by deforming vine and fruit connection while going into the fruit. Larva that goes into the fruit continues to be fed inner side of the seed. Larva completing to be fed within the seed, leaves the fruit at a point near the vine as to be pupa after 2,5-3,5 months. Meanwhile they create a visible opening on the base of the vine. This exit generally separates the fruit from the vein and causes the fruit to be outpoured.
As from the beginning of April, when the olive buds started to expand, adult density should be followed up with delta type sexual appealing traps. Chemical applications against flower and fruit generation are not advised and below given stuff should be used in advised doses.
Operative Material Name and Rate-Formulation -Dose
(in 100 lt water) -Description
Primarily advised stuff
Diflubenzuron , 25% -WP -40 g -Against the flower generation
Triflimuron , 25% -WP -40 g -Against the flower generation
Beta Cyflutrin, 25 g/l -EC -25 ml -Against the flower and fruit generation
Secondarily advised stuff
Cyfluthrin, 50 g/l -EC -25 ml -Against the flower and fruit generation
Deltamethrin, 25 g/l -EC -25 ml -Against the flower and fruit generation
Diazinon, 185 g/l -EC -150 ml -Against the fruit generation
Fenthion, 525 g/l -EC -150 ml -Against the flower and fruit generation
3-Olive Black Cochineal (Saissetia oleae Olivier)
Description and hazard type:
Olive Black cochineal has 7 different biological periods. They generally spend the winter on the leaves as 2. and 3. period larva. After the winter larva moves to browses and grows here and passes to period of female without egg. In Marmara Region period of female with egg is seen on July. Period of coming out from the egg is 1 or 3 months, eggs are opened under main bark and active larva comes out under the bark and moves to the parts like leaf and browse. Larva coming out during the summer moves at the leaves and browses and places at a suitable place in 1 week. They become 2. and 3. period larva towards the end of summer and spend the winter in this period. This pest has a strong reproductive force and there are 500-3000 egss under each main bark. In winter when the heat is under0 degree for 5-6 days and also with the effect of heats during the summer natural deaths in big amounts are happened.
They are fed by absorbing the juice of the tree in larva and adult periods. They excrete sugary ingredients, on which funguses are reproduced, and this causes Fumajin. Photosynthesis is weaken by juice absorbtion and fumajin and the tree becomes weak and productivity is decreased.
Disinfection should be carried out against the pest in the periods that these pests are not captive by the natural enemies.
Pesticide blitz in winter: It should be carried out when the weather is 4-14 degrees with the stuff containing 70% and 80% summer mineral oils within January-February and in the gardens where black cochineal is dense.
Pesticide blitz in summer: First disinfection should be carried out in the period in which 50% of the eggs are opened and second disinfection should be carried out in the period in which 90% of the eggs are opened. For the pesticide blitz one of the stuff with Deltamethrin, Methidathion, Omathoate active material should be used in advised dose.
Stuff used in the pesticide blitz of olive black cochineal
Operative Material Name and Rate-Form. Type -Dose
(in 100 lt water)-
Primarily advised stuff
Summer mineral oil , 70% -EM -1500 ml Disinfection should not be carried out in the gardens where parasitetoit rate is over 50%.
- Disinfection should be carried out in where pests are not captive by the natural enemies and the parasitetoit rate is under 50%.
Summer mineral oil, 85% -EM -1250 ml -
Beta cyfluthrin , 25 g/l -EC -50 ml -
Secondarily advised stuff
Cyfluthrin, 50 g/l -EC -50 ml -
- Disinfection should not be carried out in the gardens where parasitetoit rate is over 50%.
- Disinfection should be carried out in where pests are not captive by the natural enemies and the parasitetoit rate is under 50%.
Deltamethrin, 25 g/l -EC -25 ml -
Deltamethrin, 120 g/l -EC -5.5 ml -
Methidathion 426g/l -EC -100 ml -
Omathoate 565g/l -SL -100 ml -
1- Olive Annular Blot Pathogen (Cycloconium oleaginum)
Fungus, causing the pathogen, stays alive on the tree for the whole year. First indicators of the pathogen are the black-like grey colored round spots shaped blots seen on upper surfaces of the leaves. Color is lighten on the places where the spots are and then there happens an annulus in the leaf color around the spot. Annulus keeps going outwards in this way and typical indicator of the pathogen appears. There can be 2-30 blots on a leaf. Most suitable expansion heat of the pathogen is 18-20 degrees. Rainy days in spring and autumn are also suitable for the expansion of the pathogen. Gardens, in where water is hold in big amounts, closely planted and taking less sun and farm fertilizer with over nitrogen is given, cause the expansion of the pathogen. Leaves that are infected by the pathogen are patched off in June and July and this causes the tree becomes weak and productivity is decreased.
First disinfection should be carried out just before the autumn browses appear and second disinfection should be carried out within the April. In both pesticide blitz, disinfection should be carried out with one of the stuff containing ready cupreous, bitertanol and 1% of burgundy emulsion.
2- Antractnose-Bruise Blot (Wedge Fungus) Pathogen
Causal agent of the pathogen is fungus. Most visible type of the pathogen is the harm on the fruits. Fungus spores, that are spread from dry fruits or ailing branches and leaves, contact with the fruit and these spores, germinated with rain, consistent dew and high moist, reach to green and young fruits. Thus, it appears a decrease of 40% weight, partly or wholly drying on the fruit and acid increase on the abstracted oil. Air moist over 90% is required for the continuing of the pathogen and heat between 18-25 degrees is needed for the spreading of the pathogen. As the pathogenic infections may be seen in our region as of August, chemical pesticide bilitz is required. Because the density of the pathogen is directly related with the moist and heat, pesticide blitz should be carried out two times as of end of august and middle of September.
Pesticide blitz carried out against the Annual Blot pathogen also meets 1 pesticide blitz of this pathogen. One of the stuff containing ready cupreous, bitertanol and 1% of burgundy emulsion should be used in 2 pesticide blitzes to be carried out as of the second half of September.
2- Olive Paleness (Verticillium dahliae)
Causal agent of the pathogen is fungus. Indicators of the pathogen may sometimes be seen on one or a few branches of the olive tree and sometimes be seen on the whole tree. Indicators of the pathogen are seen as drying the browses and leaves on the trees in April and May and being not fall of until the winter.
Using trimming tools that are not disinfected may cause the pathogen and deep marks that are not covered with vaccine paste may cause infection.
Over used nitrogen fertilizers, over watering, trimming tools that are not disinfected, release or raining watering are the matters that increase the acuteness of the pathogen.
It is possible that the pathogen may be contaminated generally between olives and others like cotton, tomato, pepper, etc. Farming the above mentioned products without any alternation on the same land is the reason of verticillium in olive gardens. Furthermore, ailing olive leaves cause the continuity of the pathogen’s causal agent in the soil and they are the source of contamination. Besides it is possible fot the pathogen to contaminate within close distances by tilling and watering processes. Contamination to long distances is possible with contaminated plant materials. It is also thought that tilling type and time increases the acuteness of the pathogen. Pathogen is seen more in the watering areas. Because of this reason, dripping watering method should be preferred and unnecessary soil tilling and watering should be avoided.
Even there is no medicated pesticide blitz; cultural measures should be taken to avoid the pathogen infection.
Cultural measures to be taken:
1- Ailing branches should be cut and marks should be covered with vaccine paste by applying 2% copper sulphate dilution.
2- Trimming tools should be disinfected by dipping into bleacher solution. One tea glass of bleacher is enough for 1 lt. water.
3- Nitrogen fertilizers should be used in accordance with the need as to avoid increasing the pathogen sensitivity.
4- Olive gardens should not be placed on the groung that holds water and with heavy soil.
5- Healthy saplings should be used in the gardens.
6- In case the tree or the sapling is wholly dired because of the pathogen, it should be pulled out and burned. Anhydrate lime should be poured on the place where the tree is pulled out and contamination of the pathogen should be avoided. Sapling should not be planted on the same plca in short term.
5- Damages on Lack of Food Elements
5.1. Damages on Lack of Food Elements
1. Generally halt in growth, becoming short or over browser growth,
2. Excess root growth or limited growth,
3. Decreasing, spalling, shape disorders and general color disorders on leaves,
4. Flower and fruit spalling in excess amounts,
5. Flower and fruit holding in very low amounts,
6. Very early or late ripening of fruits,
7. Decreasing in fruit amount, flesh-seed rate and decreasing in oil percentage, color problems,
8. General differences from the gardens around may be seen on growth and fruit productivity.
In case the problems mentioned above are seen, below given subjects should be analyzed and solutions should be found.
1. First of all root, body and the leaves of the plant should be checked and pests should be looked up,
3.All the applications carried out in the garden should be checked,
a. Fertilization time, type and amount
b. Watering time, type and frequency
c. Soil processing depth and frequency
d. Trimming time
4. Environmental stresses should be searched,
a. Over drought, excessive precipitation
b. Excessive heat, excessive cold
c. Relative humidity
d. Hot, dry and strong winds
Structure of the soil, water holding capacity, receiving the given food elements have a direct effect on productivity and quality. pH makes clear itself according to the lime and salt rate in the soil. When this rate is increased the soil became more alkali, productivity and quality decreases; when it is decreased then productivity and quality increases. pH required for the olive is between 5.5 - 6.5. We accept this as ideal type. All types of supports realized our side is directly sent by the soil to the tree as productivity. In these soils, blackening problem and fertilization problem are not found.
Soil pH appears after soil analysis, and accordingly fertilization methods and watering methods are advised.
Soil saltiness: It is named according to the lime and other inorganic material content of the soil. Excess of the lime increases the saltiness.
Effective factors: Excess washing, soil erosion, wrong tilling, wrong fertilization, etc.
Results: It is directly effective on productivity and quality. Saltiness appears after pH measurements.
Most important matter that must be considered in fertilization and watering is to carry out fertilizer and soil applications according to pH and soil saltiness.
5,2. Lack of Food Elements and Solutions
5.2.1. Indicators of lack of nitrogen and Solution
1. Blanches on the leaves
2. Leaf patch off on bottom and middle parts
3. Decrease in shoot formation
4. Decrease in sumac and flower formation
5. Flower and fruit patch off
6. Shrinkage and shape disorders in fruits
7. Decrease in flesh rate and oil amount in the fruits
1. Soil insufficiency
2. Insufficient organic material in the soil
3. Low soil heat
4. Low phosphor amount
5. Excess drought
1. Nitrogenous manure should be given to the soil
2. In case the soil conditions are negative, urea dissolved in the water should be given from the leaves
3. Planting and digging into soil the leguminous type plants as interlude agriculture.
5,2.2, Indicatiors of Lack of Potassium, Reasons and Solution
1. Brown edges and yellow bottoms of old leaves
2. Shrinkage in leaves and fruits
3. Decreasing flesh rate and oil amount in the fruit
4. Decreasing resistance to cold damage
5. Decreasing resistance to pathogens and pests
1. Lack of potassium in the soil
2. Low cation change capacity in the soil
1. It is enough to give manures with potassium to the soil.
2. One of the potassium sulphate, potassium chloride and potassium nitrate should be dissolved in water and given from the leaves.
5,2.3. Lack of Calcium Indicators, Reasons and Solutions
1. Bud drying and leaf patch off
2. Easy broken and loose buds
3. Taken leaves drying before hardening
4. Sensitivity to cold in young leaves
1. Lack of calcium
2. Excess magnesium in the soil
1. Calcification should be applied in sour soil
2. Jip should be applied in salty-alkali soil
3. Calcium nitrogenous manure should be used
4. If any of the potassium manures will be used, super phosphate manure should be preferred.
5.2.4. . Lack of Boron Indicators, Reasons and Solutions
1. Chlorosis and blanching started on the edges of young leaves
2. Shrinkage and patch off in the leaves
3. Drying on shoot edges
4. Becoming short at the body and shoots
5. Dried patched off branches and becoming bush
6. Shape disorders on the fruits
1. Lack of boron in the soil
2. low pH
3. Excess lime application
4. Excess drought
1. In the soils with low lime scope, x is applied from soil to boron
2. In the places with low lime scope, excess drought and rain, borax is applied to the leaves as solution.
5.2.5. Lack of Zinc Indicators, Reasons and Solutions
1. Blanching between veins
2. Shrinkage and shape disorders on the leaves
3. Timely and timeless fruit patch off
1. Lack of zinc in the soil
2. High pH
3. Excess phosphor in the soil
1. In the sour soils, zinc sulphate or zinc clay should be applied,
2. In the alkali soils, zinc sulphate or zinc clay is applied as solution from the leaves.
5.2.5. Lack of Magnesium Indicators, Reasons and Solutions
1. Blanching as beginning from the leaf edge and greenery through the middle vein and in the leaf bottom,
2. Blanching covering the whole leaf
3. Intense leave patch off in young buds
4. Limited growth in the buds,
1. Lack of magnesium in the soil
2. Potassium and calcium in the soil
3. Excess rains
1. In the soils with lime and alkali, magnesium sulphate should be applied the leaves as solution
5.2.6. Lack of Iron Indicators, Reasons and Solutions
1. Blanching on the young leaves
2. Green leaf veins and yellow color between the veins
3. Drying bud and becoming bush in the advanced levels
1. Lack of iron
1. Dry and wet iron salts are given to body of the tree.
2. Iron solutions are applied from leaf and soil (Iron sulphate or iron clay)
2. Dolomite should be applied in sour soils
3. When the soil conditions are not available, manures with magnesium should be applied from
If the olive tree is left on its own, it indiscriminately branches and knots and branches become close together. Within this closing together, some branches become longer to reach the sun. Branches that are places at the bottom become weaker. Whole tree has a mixed up shape and becomes a forest tree. At the end it starts to become a bush. On the upper branches there will be less and big fruits. There will be no fruits on the bottoms, even there are fruits on the bottoms they will be weak and small. As the upper branches prevent the sun, sun shine will not be able to reach to bottom branches. Big and quality fruits (especially important for our region) are not expected from the branches that do not have sunshine. This case should be known yet the tree is as a sapling and tree should be shaped accordingly.
After giving this basic information, lets describe the trimming: trimming is the cutting of branches, small branches and buds that prevent us to have big edible olives and to prevent drought product year, establishing a balance between buds feeding the tree and harvest buds, to make easier the works on the tree, to provide a healthy growth for the tree and a strong and healthy branching.
In trimming it is primarily necessary to make ready all cutting and chopping tolls. Scissors should be repaired, crosscut saws should be notched and axes should be sharpened.
Under the tree to be trimmed it must be decided whether to make shape trimming, crop trimming or rejuvenation trimming.
Even the tree is young or old, it should be avoided that trimming should not resulted with cutting the branches for wood or let them grow towards upwards and to the sides. Cutting should be started with cutting thick branches if any. Cutting should be carried out from thicker to thinner.
Rarefaction and spacing trimming should start from the top and continue towards the bottom. It should not be applied from down to top.
There are rings that connect the branches in each other. If the cutting is done under this ring, the tree will have problems on feeding. If it is done on the upper parts there will remain lugs. Cutting should be made just up the ring. Thin branches should be cut with scissors and thick branches should be trimmed with an ax. Trimming is easy with such tools like saw and bucksaw. When the thick branches are cut with these tools the cutting place should be burnished. Each tree needs a cutting system. This need differs according to the age of the tree. Accomplished cutter can easily understand the cutting need of the tree by obeying the following rules. Trimming methods are as follows:
6.1. Shape Trimming
Shape trimming is applied to saplings that are two or three years old and fed with water and fertilizer after being planted. In a sampling in three years old, only the highest bud in the middle is cut for that year. No other cut is made to give a shape. Next year, three appropriate branches on the sides are chosen as main branch structure. Longest ones amongst the others are cut. No other cut is made. In the third year rest of these three main branches and the ones occupying the center are cut. Now the tree is in a shape of a vase. It is now a chunky tree. This tree now starts to produce in economical meaning. Harvest trimming will be applied for this productive tree.
6.2. Harvest Trimming
In the olive trees almost one third of the given food elements, means the fertilizer, is taken by the wood. Wood is not nourishing, it is consumer. There is no leaf on the branches and cub-branches that we call wood. Leaves are on buds and shoots. Wood parts of the tree are fed in the way that prevents buds. This means the shorter the body, branch and sub-branches are the better buds and shoots are fed. This is important for trimming. Shoots coming out of main branch and branches and are shorter than hand span are nourishing. These should be trimmed. While carrying out the trimming according to this base, light trimming should be made if the tree is strong and if the tree is weak then heavy trimming should be made. If the three was full of fruits previous year, then this tree is fed with more fertilizer this year and it is strengthen. If we carry out a heavy trimming on such trees, we will cause to have lesser fruit because it will already give fewer products. If this tree has lived its empty season last year, then it will be proper to make a heavy spacing trimming to have lesser but big fruits instead of having more but small fruits.
In top adulteration it is necessary to cut the buds going upwards to let the sun reach to bottom branches. We should keep this in mind in all kinds of harvest trimming.
6.3. Rejuvenation Trimming
Because of wrong maintenance and lack of maintenance, some olive trees grow as its own and became longer as wood. Some trees also share the same position by aging. We have to rejuvenate these trees with wrong growth balance.
We are going to carry out a good maintenance for these trees. We are going to make rejuvenation trimming. This trimming can not be wholly applied in a trimming season. It should be completed at least in three years. If we realize this once in a sudden, then the tree will need many years instead of three years. This year three top branches are cut over the branch in the same thickness. Remain branches will get longer with sub branches till the next year. Next year by decreasing the level one step, again suitable trimming is made. By this way new buds are grown. This tree will have fresh branches within tree years. With these new branches the tree becomes more productive, without woods and rejuvenated. Harvest branches are brought closer to the body. Ordinate production will be possible only with the rejuvenation studies we are going to carry out together with other maintenance processes.
In the new formed olive gardens, saplings are not trimmed till two, three years old. Only weak shoots of them are cleaned and they are watered. Only one leader from the center of this sapling which is two years old in 1990 is taken and no any other cutting is carried out. In 1991 this cutting is carried on one or two branches more. No any other cutting is made. In 1992, straight branches closing the center are trimmed. In 1993 the tree will have the calyx shape and become productive. From now on harvest trimming should be applied to this tree without deforming its shape.
6.4. Matters to be Careful in Trimming
Cleaning of the tools to be used in the trimming takes the first place in the matters to be careful in trimming. Tools should be kept in water with 5% hypo for at least 15 minutes. It will be useful for each tool to be in twos. After the trimming process, the trimmed parts should be immediately taken out of the garden. We should be careful not to damage the tree during the trimming. Trimmed parts should immediately be covered with oil of vitriol or 1% burgundy emulsion and contact with air should be avoided. In case we are not available to supply none of these materials, big bruises should be covered with the soil.
Oil of vitriol: Bitumen + resin mixture or vaccine paste + bitumen mixture.
7- Soil and Leaf Analysis
7.1. Taking Soil Sample
Palce, from where the soil sample is going to be taken, should be divided into parts according to declivity, height and soil type. Separate samples should be taken from each part. In the olive garden from where the soil sample is going to be taken, it should be walked as zigzagging and samples should be taken from at least three places. We should be careful that bucket, oar, etc. that will used in sample taking must be clear of manure and chemical materials. A pit in depth of 50 cm. is dig on the marked places. Soil part in thickness of 3-4 cm. and depth of 20 cm. is taken from one side of the hole with an oar and is put in the bucket. Then a sample is also taken from depth of 20-40 cm. This process is applied for the other holes.
Samples are collected in separate buckets. In each bucket sample should be cleared from stones and grasses and after being mix up 1 kg. is taken and put in pouches. Name of the garden owner, sample date and soil depth are written on the pouch. Sample should not be taken from road sides, places where there are manure mass, places where bushes are burned and high ground and pit holes.
7.2. Taking Leaf Sample
Leaf samples should be taken within November-January months. Leaf samples are taken from four sides of the tree, from a human height point and from one year old harrows. Two corresponding leaves in the middle of the harrow are taken as two stalks and are put in a pouch. At least 200 pieces of leaves should be taken from a garden. As to take a sample representing the whole garden, sides of the garden should be excluded and trees should be marked by walking in the garden like U shape. If the olive garden is small samples should be taken from each tree and if the olive garden is big samples should be taken from one of 2-3 trees.
Olive harvest starts at November and continues till January. Most important factor to be careful during the harvest is to prevent the olive trees from any damage. For this reason tools and equipments to be used in the harvest should be chosen very carefully. It is advised to pick by hand. By this way the risk of damaging the trees or young buds is avoided.
As long term keeping of the olives after harvest will cause quality loss in the olive, they should be processed on time. Putting the damaged, bruised and out of quality olives together with the good and quality olives also causes quality losses. Such olives should be put in different containers. Mistakes during the transportation and storage also cause quality losses.
Also long term keeping of oil olives causes olives in poor quality.
Most important point to be careful during the harvest with machine is the part that the machine hits the tree and vibration feature of the machine.
9- Sapling Planting
First of all places where the saplings will be planted are properly marked on the land. A sapling hole in dimensions of 80 x 80 x 80 cm is dig. While digging the hole soil taken from up and soil taken from down are put in the same place. It is useful for the sapling to put some gravel at the bottom of the hole. Then soil taken from up is mixed with barn manure and put in the bottom. After that, sapling is put on this soil and rounded with the soil taken from down and completeşy pressed. Meanwhile some chemical fertilizer should also be put. Finally some water called life water should be given. Square, rectangle, triangle and counter planting systems are applied for garden formation. Square and rectangle is used in flattened lands and triangle and counter planting systems are used in bevel lands.