A Natural Flavor From it’s Branch to Your Table


  • What Is Olive?


    What Is Olive? 

    Olive (olea europea L.), a Mediterranean plant, has got the opportunity to outspread through almost all Mediterranean countries. Olive which can grow up naturally even in the worst kinds of soil, is also defined as the first tree of nature.

    Olive trees start to teem economically between 6th and 10th years of its planting and continue to live for 80 – 100 years. About 70% of olive trees in our country take place at bias and mountainous areas and hillsides. As a result, it is not possible to apply cultural care for trees and so, the annual product amount can fluctuate in years. These years of periodical changes are called “present” year and “absent” year by people. Olive is a beneficial and tasteful food which is consumed in breakfast and dressing the meals, especially salads in our country. Olive is served to our tables as different kinds of black olive and green olive brines. Olive harvest is done between October and January. In Marmarabirlik Olive Agriculture Selling Cooperative Society Integrated Association, our olives are exposed to fermentation in saltwater with a concentration of 10% during 9 -10 months. Thereby it can be managed to control the color of olive and take “oleuropein” substance, which tastes bitter, out without any additive.

    The history of the most healthful and natural oil source in the World, olive, has taken its roots from 8000 years ago. In its historical development, olive has become source of inspiration for a variety of myths. It takes place in old tablets and holy books. Moreover, because of the return of a pigeon to the Noah’s arc with a branch of olive tree as a sign of liveliness, olive branch is accepted as a sign of peace for centuries. 

    Anatomical differences of olive as a meaty and stone fruit in orgenoleptic terms


    A vertical cross section that shows the composition of olive

    1. Less amount (2.5 – 6%) of sugar in contrast to other stone fruits (12% or more).
    2. Bigger level of oil amount (between 17 – 30% in different kinds of olive oil) in contrast to other stone fruits (1.55%).
    3. Sugar at high levels in the meat of olive turns to lactic acid by fermentation. This lactic acid and salt protect the olive.


    The characteristic features of table olive

    1. Relatively wide fruit size (table olives should be meaty.) and meat – seed ratio should be between 5:1 and 12:1.
    2. Oil content in the meat should be at low levels (about 20%). Higher levels of oil affect the tissue of olive in an undesirable way.
    3. Diğer meyvelerde bulunmayan oleumpein denilen acılık maddesi zeytinde bulunmakiadır.

    The characteristic features of table olive

    • Durability of meat of olive should be permanent through the different steps of process. Pectin, cellulose, lignin and polysaccharides are the basic factors that affect density of olive meat.
    • During the chew or when olive with filling is made, seed should leave mesocarp easily. 
    • Epidermis should be thin and elastic to last during the process.

     Some Psychical Characteristics of Olive



    * Grain weight     


    2 - 12 gr. 

    * Fruit skin 


    % 1.5 - 3.5 

    * Seed rate 


    %13 - 30 

    * Meat rate 


    %66 - 85 



    Compound of Olive Meat


    * Water 


    %50 - 70 

    * Oil      


    %15 - 30 

    * Protein 


    %1 - 2 

    * Fiber 


    %1 - 3 

    * Ash    


    %1 - 5 



    %2 - 6 


    Chemical Compound of Olive




    Total KM 


    Total Sugar






    Na (mg/100g) 


    K (mg/100g) 


    Ca (mg/100g) 


    Mg (mg/100g) 


    Mn (mg/100g) 


    Fe (mg/100g) 


    Zn (mg/100g) 


    Cu (mg/100g) 


    P (mg/100g) 


    Carotene (mg/100g)

    0,15 - 0,2 

    Vitamin C (mg/100g) 

    12,9 – 19,1 

    Thiamin (microgram/100 g) 



    Factors That Affect the Compound of Olive

    ·        Those related to raw material. 

    ·        Those related to processing stage. ,


    Basic Compounds of Olive Fruit

    ·        Water 

    ·        Fatty Substances 

    ·        Simple Sugar

    ·        Other Carbohydrates 

    ·        Proteins

    ·        Pectin 

    ·        Organic Acids

    ·        Tannins 

    ·        Oleuropein

    ·        Color substances 

    ·        Vitamins 

    Inorganic substances

  • History of Olive


    History Of Olive:

    Botanic: The Scientific roots of olive start from the “oleaeege” family.  “Olea” which comes from the same family with jasmine and lilac, is a wild fruit-tree. About 30 different types of tree are determined in “Olea” family. “Olea europea” is one of these and the most important one. There are main two subspecies of “olea europea” whose homeland is East Mediterranean. These are “olea europea oleaster” (wild) and “olea europea sativa” (domestic).


    The oil that comes from the unique fruit of olive first brightened our nights, blessed our temples, comforted our souls, then beautified our hair and skin, massaged, developed and cleared our body, and finally become the most important component of our kitchens. However, there is no consensus about the age and homeland of the wild olive trees that have their roots in prehistoric ages, among the historians, archaeologist and archae-botanists. According to De Candolle and Pelletier,AnatoliaSyria and Iran; according to others, CreteGreece and maybe North Africa, Atlas Mountains, inferior Egypt are the homeland of olive. Moreover, there are also different opinions about the producer and the place of first wild olive, first people who domesticated it and its spreading lines on map.



    The main letters of the oldest alphabets of world have naturally the traces of agrarian society.  “Alpha” (A/pha), “Beta” (Beth), “Gamma” (Gama), and Zeta (Zat) symbolize respectively bullock, house, camel and olive. In Acadian language, “zertum” and “seirtum” symbolize both olive tree and olive fruit. In religious ceremonies, olive fruit and olive oil (zertium) was given with other fruits such as grape and fig to the gods as altar. Zai became Zait in Hebrew language and zaitum in the Arabic language. Arabs call old and big trees as “zeitun er-Rum” (olive tree of Romans) even today. Turks, which came from Middle Asia to Anatolia, called first “zeyton” with the influence of Arabs and later decided on “zeytin”.


    Cretans called “e/aiwa”, while their relatives, Greeks, called “e/aia”. Romans called first “o/eo”, later decided on “oliva”. French and British people call “olive”. The root of the Greek word “e/aia”is the “u/u” of the Semites. U/u symbolized the oil in Hybrid Language. If we look at the word “olive oil”, we see that “e/aion” of Greeks turns to “o/eum” in Rome. Italians, French people, British people, changed it respectively to “oli”, “huile” and “oil”. Spanish people changed “az-zeit” (olive juice) of Arabs to “aceite”.


    Not centuries, But millenniums

    Oleaster, thorny and wild olive tree which has small fruits, was part of the natural vegetation of the East Mediterranean region at 10.000 B.C. However, there are also some claims that support the argument that olive trees existed at the West Mediterranean at 12.000 B.C., because of fossils of the olive tree branches from Paleolithic era in North Africa, fossils of wild olive trees from chalcolithic era in Spainand fossils of leaves of olive trees in Mongardino region of Italy. Some professionals argue that the roots of olive goes back to the 37.000 B.C., because of the fossils of olive trees from 2000 B.C. at Peloponnesus, the southern peninsula of Greece, and fossils of olive seeds and leaves that is found at Santorini island at Aegean Sea. This means that olive is 39.000 years old. On the other hand, this   does not mean that olive production is done with wild olive trees.


    The arguments about the homeland of olive are becoming larger because of existing culture of olive tree at a region that ranges from South Caucasus, Iran to Syria and Palestinian. The most credible claim is that the homeland of olive (or at least olea europea) is South-Eastern Anatolia, especially Mardin, Maras and Hatay. The fact that naturally grown up trees spreads out rapidly different regions in Anatolia such as at Taurus Mountains at south, Smyrna and Mugla at west, Dardanelles and Bursa at northern-west and olive forests in West Anatolia while in other regions that is produced olive, there is no naturally grown up tree apart from those planted by people, supports the claim that the homeland of olive is Turkey. If we consider the fact that only 10% of the unique archeological wealthiness of Anatolia is found up to day, we can understand that each new proof about the olive trees and olive farming supports this claim.


    On the other hand, it is clear that the domestication of wild olive, oleaster, and turning into sativa is managed at 4.000 B.C. in Anatolia, East Mediterranean and South Near East, at the Mediterranean coast (from Adana and Syria to Lebanon andIsrael). It is supposed that Semites has managed this miracle.


    The harvest that continues for 6000 years

    Who did managed to get bigger, fatty and less bitter olive grains and use the olive oil in daily life by implanting of wild olive tree centuries ago? Scientifically, no one has exact information about it. There are only speculations apart from myths on this issue. Jose M. Blazquez, the writer of the “World Olive Encyclopedia” argues that farming of olive began in Anatolia nearly 6.000 years ago and points that all old civilizations at this region have knowledge about olive farming apart from Assyrians and Babylonians.


    However, it is should be people of Near Asia (between Syria and Iran) who domesticated the olive first. These people are Persians, Mesopotamians, Syrians and Palestinians who are also the first agrarians who produce the fruits such as grape, fig, pomegranate and date. As a matter of fact, the fact that there are relics that shows Near East olive farming from 3700 and 3200 B.C. in Israel and Jordan, strengthens this argument. These people who have trade skills and farming ability, implanted the wild olive trees. They took care and turned them into a domestic plant that have more leafs and more oil, and finally developed and spreaded them through Mediterranean.

    Domestication of olive is realized in about 4000 B.C. However, for squeezing its fruit to get oil another 1500 – 2000 years were needed. Truly, not only olive seeds but also oil press tools, pots, vases and artistic wall-drawings prove that olive farming was an important engagement for Mediterranean people of Bronze Age. At Palmyra, the region called “fertile crescent” between Euphrates and Asi Rivers, olive oil became very famous. Olive oil trade of Phoenicians spreaded olive plant through the two sides of Mediterranean; through Egypt at south between 2600 and 1600 B.C., through Cyprus and Crete at west, through Greece (crossing across the Anatolia) at between 1400 and 120 B.C., and through Libya and Tunisia at 700 B.C. At the 8thcentury, Sicilians met with olive oil by the Syracuse colony of Greece which is formed by the revenue of the olive oil and wine trade. After Sicilians, olive oil reached to RomeFranceSpain And finally Portugal. Surely, it is not possible to make any certain onological ordering. According to some historians who claim that Cretans recognized olive at about 3000 B.C., Italians also recognized olive at 1200 B.C. Some other historian argue that Italy recognized olive not throughGreece, but through Tripoli or Tunisia at the era of emperor Lucius Tarquinius (616 – 578 B.C.) when Romans conquered North Africa, they saw that Amazighs (Berbers) at this region are very familiar with olive and implantation activity. Every new archeological finding not only broadens the minds of archeologists, but also questions all accepted arguments. For example, do not the wall-drawings that show people with crest made from olive branches, on the caves of mountainous region of Sahara in South Algeria; prove that people in that region are familiar with olive at 5000 and 2000 B.C.

  • Olive Planting – Care and Harvest


      1- Care Works Through Months
    1.1. Care works that should be done during February and January
    In the gardens that olive harvesting has not finished yet, it should be finished. On these months, when air is convenient and soil is ready, pecking up the ground is very beneficial. This process of pecking eliminates the weeds and prepares soil for the rain during the spring. Moreover, it kills the eggs of insect in the soil.
    After this process, soil can be cultivated by simple farming tools. It is very useful to learn the structure and mixture of soil before deciding on fertilizing the soil. 
    With this aim, soil should be taken from different parts of the area and these samples should be analyzed. According to the result of analyses, the proposed amount and type of the fertile should be used. Fertile activities with no analyses and information, unnecessary element can be given to the soil. This activity causes both waste of time and economic loss. Moreover, these unnecessary elements can prevent the use of other elements in the soil which can be needed by olive tree. Another important analysis to give the all elements that are needed by tree completely is leaf analysis. With this effective analysis, it can be pointed which elements olive tree needs. Both the soil and leaf analysis should be conducted and the fertile should be used properly according to the results from these analyses. It is a must to use fertile by following the instructors that are composed by taking result of analysis into account for healthy development of trees and economical gains.  Winter disinfection can be done against coccidae. 
    1.2. Care works that should be done during March and April
    Basic works that should be done on March and April are pruning, fertilizing, disinfection and cultivating. The most important one among these is pruning. 
    Pruning can be made in a period between harvest time and browse time in spring. However, early pruning is not recommended because it can cause early awakening of trees. This condition is very important especially for the regions such as Marmara which freeze can be harmful for olive in spring and winter. 
    It is also not recommended pruning after the awakening of trees, because in this period, some of the substitute commodities in olive tree are spent for shooting. So, late pruning detains browse and affect the plant negatively. On these grounds, the best adequate period for pruning is between late winter and early spring, namely February and March.
    At regions that olive cancer is frequent, to prevent spread of the disease, pruning should be done in summer. In winter pruning, pruning tools should be disinfected regularly.
    According to age of tree and the aim that is expected, three kinds of pruning can be done: shape pruning, crop pruning and rejuvenation pruning. 
    If there are olive trees at a high number, shape pruning can be made. Like other fruit trees, different shapes can be made on olive tree. The adequate shape for olive trees is “free goble”.
    For the trees that are left for fertile, crop pruning should be done regularly every year. For crop pruning, first, bold, dead and rude parts should be cut.  Pruning can be done from interior and cusp parts through exterior parts. Meanwhile, the branch at the downside among branches that are crushed and the branches that has disease also should be cut.
    For the trees that lost its fertility and that are damaged in different ways, rejuvenation pruning should be done. It should not be finished in one year. It should last for 3 or 4 years. Because on these months, expansion starts, trees should be fertilized with a nitrous fertilizer. These fertilizers can be ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate.
    The harmful activities of olive moth on the leaf, starts with the warmer weather conditions on March and April. To prevent this, insecticide should be used. Besides, trees should be protected with cupric chemicals and copper sulfate to prevent fungal diseases.
    It is also necessary to fight against weeds in garden. For fighting against weed, soil should be pecked up. If it is planned to make a new garden, young olive trees should be planted on March.
    1.3. Care works that should be done during May and June
    If the weather is rainless on May and June, before the blooming time, watering should be started. Watering can be done in four different ways;
    1.        surface irrigation
    2.        furrow irrigation
    3.        rain irrigation
    4.        trickle irrigation
    Especially areas that do not have enough water to apply other methods, trickle irrigation is the best solution.
    Irrigation which is applied effectively has some advantages:
    Rise in product quality and efficiency
    Water that plant can need is kept at the root of plant.
    Economization of fertilizers and labor work
    New layers do not come into being, so need for soil working is minimized.
    Erosion can be prevented.
    Need for arraignment is eliminated.
    After the spring rain or watering process, it is a necessity to fight against the weed that can be seen in their garden.
    One of the most important issues of these months is to apply insecticide against olive moth to protect the flowers and fruits of the tree. When the
    olive flowers are bud, female olive moths leave their eggs to buds. These larvas eat the pollination organ, so the number of flowers and efficiency decrease.
    By following these periods, trees should be controlled. At this periods and when larva is seen on the tree, insecticides should be applied.
    Olive moths can be harmful for the fruits as well. When the olive fruits develop, female olive moths leave their eggs to the joining point of fruit and stem. Larva can go into the seed of the fruit and eat the extract of seed and leave the fruit. Larva cause falls of the fruit because they break off the connection between fruit and stem. To prevent these harmful moths, these periods should be following carefully and an insecticide should be applied.
    1.4. Care works that should be done during July and August
    Because the fruit becomes fatty and bigger on July and August, irrigation should be done. Weed should be pecked up and insecticide should be applied. Insecticide should be applied also on these months because the harm caused by olive moth can be continued. Besides, olive should also protected by insecticides and white oil against larva that comes from coccidaes
    The most important issue on these months is irrigation. Leaves can fade, olives can crinkle, stem can dry and detache, if irrigation is not done properly. On these months, soil also should be conserved by improving and pecking.
    1.5. Care works that should be done during September and October
    Insecticide process, irrigation and cultivation are the basic works that should be done on October and September. Especially on September olive flies leave their eggs to 1 mm inside of the fruit. Larves causes corruption of olive by taking nourishment from the olive. Because these corrupted olives can stay on the tree, they can be accumulated with healthy olives and as a result, the harvest can be low-quality and corrupted. Certainly such kind of harvest is not something we expect. To prevent this kind of a harvest, the periods that flies have activity should be followed and effective insecticides should be used. Moreover, it is a must to fight against fungus disease with cupric chemicals and copper sulfate.
    Irrigation should continue according to weather conditions. Soil should be pecked up against weeds.
    1.6. Care works that should be done during November and December
    These months are the harvest time. With the maturation of the olive, harvest is started on November. Because the each olive grain does not get darken at the same time, harvest is not done in one go. At some years, it can continue until January or February. If the harvest is finished at an early time, soil should be pecked up deeply. Besides, if it is considered necessary, fertilizers with phosphor and potassium should be applied.
    Cotton flea of olive: March – April – May – early June
    Mixture of copper sulphate and lime: after harvest and pruning process, against early spring freeze (April – May)
    After harvest: 2 – 3%
    After pruning process: 1.5 – 2%
    Against early spring freeze: 1 – 1.5%
    Against early winter freeze: 1%
      2- Fertilization
     2.1. What is fertilizer?
    All living things need energy to survive. They can supply this energy in different ways. Plants get the energy they need, from soil. They absorb oxygen, hydrogen, potassium, phosphor and water molecules in the soil with their lateral roots and tassels. These atoms are basic comestibles for plants. Absence or surplus of these atoms in the soil causes root diseases, growing diseases, becoming short of tree and inefficiency.
    Beside these comestibles, plants also need some other elements such as magnesium, zinc, sulphur, boron, molybdenum. These elements have effects on roots, body, development of leaf and quality of fruit. Plants show absence of elements they need in various ways. (Growth backwardness, late blooming, low quality of fruit and shape of fruit, sallow leaf…)
    2.2. Why we use fertilizers?
    Plants get all elements they need through soil. However, because of several reasons such as heavy structure of soil, overirrigation and corruption of microorganism activities, they can not get these elements.
    Absence of zinc, manganese, boron and iron, can cause blooming, pollination problems, darkening problem and death towards backward (becoming a “bush-like” plant). To keep growth of tree, we use fertilizers to make plant get the elements they need externally.
    Nitrogen (N+2): is effective on root growth, blooming and fruit.
    Phosphor (P+):  is effective on leaf and body growth and branching and blooming.
    Potassium (K+): has a role as catalyst and effect on quality of fruit growth.
    2.3. Points that should be paid attention in fertilization
    Fertilizers that contain nitrogen, phosphor, and potassium should be used on February and March, if the soil is not analyzed. Fertilizers should be covered after the process.
    If only fertilizers that contain phosphor and potassium are used, holes should be digged. After fertilizers are placed in these holes, they should be covered. Because these fertilizers dissolve slowly, they should be placed close to the roots. The amount of fertilizers should be decided according to the size and age of tree. If soil is not analyzed, 3 – 4 kg composed fertilizers, 2- 3 kg fertilizers with phosphor, and 1 – 2 kg fertilizers with potassium should be used per tree. Besides, in every two or three years, 50 or 60 kg blasted shed fertilizers should be used and cover with soil by pecking.
    For the soil that lacks lime, fertilizers that contain calcium are more suitable rather than fertilizers with ammonium nitrate.
    Olive trees benefit most rapidly from fertilizers that contain nitrogen and potassium and most slowly from fertilizers that contain phosphor.
    2.4. Suitable periods for fertilization
    Composed fertilizers can be used between January and March, according to climate; other fertilizers can be used between late April and early May.
    2.5. Fertilizers that are used for olive trees
    1- Organic Fertilizers
    2- Chemical fertilizers
             A. Nitrogenous fertilizers
                       - Ammonium Sulfate (21%)
                       - Ammonium Nitrate (26%)
                       - Urea (46%)
             B- Fertilizers with phosphor
                       - Super Phosphate (18%)
                       - Triple Phosphate (45%)
             C- Fertilizers with potassium
                       - Potassium chloride (60%)
                       - Potassium sulfate (50%)
                       - Potassium nitrate (44%)
             D- Composed Fertilizers
                       - 15.15.15
                       - 17.17.17
                      - 20.20.20
                      - 20.20.0
                       - 15.15.0
                      - DAP. (18.46)
    Chicken Fertilizers
    Because of the increasing cost of chemical fertilizers and increase in the ratio of fertilizers used, producers seek new alternatives for fertilizers. Chicken fertilizers become an alternative after the new problem of faecal matters of poultry, whose number is really high.
    Fowls are grown up for their meat and eggs. Our agrarians start to use these faecal matters in their fields with the method of trial and error. As a result, both cattle and chicken fertilizers are seen as very effective. However, the acid level of chicken fertilizers is measured as ph 3 – 5. These unprocessed fertilizers that have high acid level; have very efficient results at first use. However, its high acid level gives irrecoverable damages on soil and roots of tree at second and third attempts
    Today, the ph degree of chicken fertilizers that we use should be between 5.5 and 6.5. We can reach this ph level by waiting fertilizers or adding lime to fertilizer to burn it. Unprocessed chicken fertilizers corrupt the structure of soil and increase the ph level of it. High ph level of soil has negative effect on efficiency and quality.
    For soils that have 7.2 or more ph level, it can have positive effect on efficiency and quality. For soils that have a ph level between 5 and 7, it can have negative effect on efficiency and quality and cause desiccation and shedding of fruits.
    If we plan to use chicken fertilizers, we should use it, regarding the advices of experts and results of analysis. So we can prevent the unrecoverable negative effects on soil and tree.
    2.7. Methods of fertilization
    2.7.1 Scattering method of fertilization
    In this method, fertilizers are scattered around the tree and soil is blended gently. This method is usually used for nitrous fertilizers. Nitrous fertilizers that is scattered on soil should be blended to go inside the soil. Nitrous fertilizers that stand on the soil for a long time lose their effect.
    2.7.2. Circle shaped dike method of fertilization
    In this method, fertilizers are placed in a dike (with a depth about 20-25 cm and width about 40 cm) that is ditched around the tree and covered by soil.
    This method is applied for the fertilizers that contain phosphor and potassium. Their movement under the soil is at minimum level, so placement closely to the roots is advised.
    2.7.3. Single line hole method of fertilization
    It is a method to decrease the labor work expense. In this method, fertilizers are replaced in holes (with a depth about 20-25 cm and width about 40 cm), that are ditched at a certain distance, equally and covered by soil.
    In these holes whose long edges are parallel to the body, fertilizers that contain phosphor and potassium are used. Nitrous fertilizers are distributed on soil and blended with it.
    2.7.4. Double line hole method of fertilization
    Although the cost of this method is higher than single line hole method, this method is the best one for the root system of olive tree; because if the first line holes can be ditched at the level of first root area of olive tree and the second line holes can be ditched at the level of second root area of olive tree, tree can benefit from the fertilizers very efficiently.
    In the holes that are ditched around the tree, fertilizers that contain phosphor should be used. Fertilizers that contain potassium are distributed on soil and blended with it.
    2.7.5. Holes between lines method of fertilization
    This is a method which is used for short olive trees. In this method fertilizers that contains phosphor and potassium, are placed to the dikes (with a depth about 20-25 cm, length about 2-3 m and width about 40 cm) that are ditched between trees and covered with soil.
      3- Irrigation
    Large extent of water need of trees is satisfied through rains. The need for water of olive tree is about 1 – 3 tons per year. Olive trees spend water through respiration and perspiration. Irrigation should be made on May, July and September for olive trees. If weather is dry on May and June, irrigation should be made before blooming. On July and August, because olive fruits get bigger and fatty, trees need water. Irrigation is a necessity also on these months. On September, there can be early fall freezes, so irrigation on this month should be done very carefully. Irrigation should be made at the first half of the month. Irrigation can be made in four different ways:
    1-surface irrigation
    2-furrow irrigation
    3-rain irrigation
    4-trickle irrigation
    Especially if the water is not enough for other methods, trickle irrigation should be applied. After the spring rain or watering process, it is a necessity to fight against the weed that can be seen in their garden. Another important point is that irrigation should not be made on midday and field should be watered in parts.
    Determination of irrigation time:
    To determine of water need of the soil, we take 100 g of soil sample and add water to this sample until the sample become clay. Then weight of this sample is measured. After measuring, this sample is waited in the oven at 250 – 300 C for 15 minutes. The weight of the sample is measured again. The difference between two weights is the capacity of soil to hold water. If the result is between 1 and 10, the capacity of soil is very low and soil needs water. If the result is between 10 and 20, the capacity of soil is not very low but soil still needs water in certain periods. If the result is between 20 and 30, the capacity of soil is very close to ideal and soil needs water only once or twice for a year. If the result is more than 30, soil is a hardpan and irrigation is very useful, because soil can not hold much water, water can cause corruption and fungal disease on the roots of tree and even death of tree.
      4- Pathogens and Pests
    Olive Pests
    1-Olive Fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmelin)
    Description and type of harm:
    It is seen at all olive groves in our country and fly is the adult of this pest. Adults are in height of 4-6 mm and they are in colors of brown and honey-colored. Larva is in length of approximately 6-8 mm and it is limpid and white. Pupa has a barrel-shape and brown color.
    During the winter they live 2-5 cm. under the ground as pupa or in forestry areas as adult. Adults are fed with sugary ingredients excreted by barky louses and leaf louses. When the ground heat increases to 10°C, adults start to appear and are fed with the sugary ingredients found in the around. Female adults copulate in the end of June and they bore a hole in depth of 0,5-1 mm on the side of big and oily olive fruits and place their eggs in these holes by their egg placing pipes. Each female places only one egg in each fruits. In some peak years they may place more eggs in the fruits. Hole places where the eggs are placed turn into a brown color in 1-2 days and this place is called as “DENT”. It is known that they may give birth for 3-4 generation in Marmara Region.
    During the harmful larva period, they damage the fruit by eating the flesh and open galleries inside. They also cause such damages like decomposition, increasing acid and decreasing oil. In the epidemic years rate of the damage may reach up to 70%.
    Pesticide Blitz
    When the fruits are grew for the egg placing, increase in the number of caught adults should be determined. In case dent of 1% in brine types and 6% in oily types is detected, coating disinfection should be carried out.
    In coating disinfection one of the below given stuff may be used.
    Operative Material Name and Rate -Formulation -Dose (in 100 lt water)
    Formothion, 336 g/l -EC -150 ml
    Cyfluthrin, 50 g/l -EC -30 ml
    Deltamethrin, 25 g/l -EC -25 ml
    Deltamethrin, 120 g/l -EC -5.5 ml
    Fenthion, 525 g/l -EC -100 ml
    Trichlorfon, 80% -SP -125 g
    2- Olive Moth (Prays oleae Bern.)
    Description and type of harm
    Adult form of this pest is butterfly and it is 7-8 mm long. There are black colored blots on the front wings and grey drips on the edges. Larva color is dirty white and yellowish and they are 0.8-1 cm long. Pupa is placed in a visible, loosely tissue and light colored cocoon.
    They give birth 3 times a year as of in different phenologic periods of the olive tree. These are leaf, flower and fruit eggs.
    a) Leaf Egg   
    Adults, coming from the larva, fed in the fruits, appears between September and December and place their eggs on the leaves. Larva comes out from the egg within 8-15 days, depending on the weather and goes into the leaf’s epidermis and spends the winter there. They come out at the end of February and are fed by eating new growth edges and the leaves. Adults prepare cocoon on the edge leaves and become pupa again.
    b) Flower Egg
    Adults, coming from leaf egg, place their eggs on the new growth flower buds on April and May. Larva comes out within 8-10 days and goes into the flower buds and is fed here. Larva can damage 30-40 buds. Growth larva prepares a net within the buds and becomes pupa.
    c) Fruit Egg 
    Adults come out on the flower egg fo the olive fruits in the bigness of 5 numbered drop shot at the end of May and beginning of June and place their eggs on basin leaves of the fruit. Larva coming out of the egg causes pepper outpour by deforming vine and fruit connection while going into the fruit. Larva that goes into the fruit continues to be fed inner side of the seed. Larva completing to be fed within the seed, leaves the fruit at a point near the vine as to be pupa after 2,5-3,5 months. Meanwhile they create a visible opening on the base of the vine. This exit generally separates the fruit from the vein and causes the fruit to be outpoured.
    Pesticide Blitz
    As from the beginning of April, when the olive buds started to expand, adult density should be followed up with delta type sexual appealing traps. Chemical applications against flower and fruit generation are not advised and below given stuff should be used in advised doses.
    Operative Material Name and Rate-Formulation -Dose
    (in 100 lt water) -Description
    Primarily advised stuff
    Diflubenzuron , 25% -WP -40 g -Against the flower generation
    Triflimuron , 25% -WP -40 g -Against the flower generation
    Beta Cyflutrin, 25 g/l -EC -25 ml -Against the flower and fruit generation
    Secondarily advised stuff
    Cyfluthrin, 50 g/l -EC -25 ml -Against the flower and fruit generation
    Deltamethrin, 25 g/l -EC -25 ml -Against the flower and fruit generation
    Diazinon, 185 g/l -EC -150 ml -Against the fruit generation
    Fenthion, 525 g/l -EC -150 ml -Against the flower and fruit generation
    3-Olive Black Cochineal (Saissetia oleae Olivier)
    Description and hazard type:
    Olive Black cochineal has 7 different biological periods. They generally spend the winter on the leaves as 2. and 3. period larva. After the winter larva moves to browses and grows here and passes to period of female without egg. In Marmara Region period of female with egg is seen on July. Period of coming out from the egg is 1 or 3 months, eggs are opened under main bark and active larva comes out under the bark and moves to the parts like leaf and browse. Larva coming out during the summer moves at the leaves and browses and places at a suitable place in 1 week. They become 2. and 3. period larva towards the end of summer and spend the winter in this period. This pest has a strong reproductive force and there are 500-3000 egss under each main bark. In winter when the heat is under0 degree for 5-6 days and also with the effect of heats during the summer natural deaths in big amounts are happened.
    They are fed by absorbing the juice of the tree in larva and adult periods. They excrete sugary ingredients, on which funguses are reproduced, and this causes Fumajin. Photosynthesis is weaken by juice absorbtion and fumajin and the tree becomes weak and productivity is decreased.
    Pesticide Blitz:
    Disinfection should be carried out against the pest in the periods that these pests are not captive by the natural enemies.
    Pesticide blitz in winter: It should be carried out when the weather is 4-14 degrees with the stuff containing 70% and 80% summer mineral oils within January-February and in the gardens where black cochineal is dense.
    Pesticide blitz in summer: First disinfection should be carried out in the period in which 50% of the eggs are opened and second disinfection should be carried out in the period in which 90% of the eggs are opened. For the pesticide blitz one of the stuff with Deltamethrin, Methidathion, Omathoate active material should be used in advised dose.
    Stuff used in the pesticide blitz of olive black cochineal
    Operative Material Name and Rate-Form. Type -Dose
    (in 100 lt water)- 
    Primarily advised stuff
    Summer mineral oil , 70% -EM -1500 ml Disinfection should not be carried out in the gardens where parasitetoit rate is over 50%.
    - Disinfection should be carried out in where pests are not captive by the natural enemies and the parasitetoit rate is under 50%.
    Summer mineral oil, 85% -EM -1250 ml -
    Beta cyfluthrin , 25 g/l -EC -50 ml -
    Secondarily advised stuff
    Cyfluthrin, 50 g/l -EC -50 ml - 
    - Disinfection should not be carried out in the gardens where parasitetoit rate is over 50%.
    - Disinfection should be carried out in where pests are not captive by the natural enemies and the parasitetoit rate is under 50%.
    Deltamethrin, 25 g/l -EC -25 ml -
    Deltamethrin, 120 g/l -EC -5.5 ml -
    Methidathion 426g/l -EC -100 ml -
    Omathoate 565g/l -SL -100 ml -
    Olive Pathogens
    1-     Olive Annular Blot Pathogen (Cycloconium oleaginum)
    Fungus, causing the pathogen, stays alive on the tree for the whole year. First indicators of the pathogen are the black-like grey colored round spots shaped blots seen on upper surfaces of the leaves. Color is lighten on the places where the spots are and then there happens an annulus in the leaf color around the spot. Annulus keeps going outwards in this way and typical indicator of the pathogen appears. There can be 2-30 blots on a leaf. Most suitable expansion heat of the pathogen is 18-20 degrees. Rainy days in spring and autumn are also suitable for the expansion of the pathogen. Gardens, in where water is hold in big amounts, closely planted and taking less sun and farm fertilizer with over nitrogen is given, cause the expansion of the pathogen. Leaves that are infected by the pathogen are patched off in June and July and this causes the tree becomes weak and productivity is decreased.
    First disinfection should be carried out just before the autumn browses appear and second disinfection should be carried out within the April. In both pesticide blitz, disinfection should be carried out with one of the stuff containing ready cupreous, bitertanol and 1% of burgundy emulsion.
    2- Antractnose-Bruise Blot (Wedge Fungus) Pathogen
    Causal agent of the pathogen is fungus. Most visible type of the pathogen is the harm on the fruits. Fungus spores, that are spread from dry fruits or ailing branches and leaves, contact with the fruit and these spores, germinated with rain, consistent dew and high moist, reach to green and young fruits. Thus, it appears a decrease of 40% weight, partly or wholly drying on the fruit and acid increase on the abstracted oil. Air moist over 90% is required for the continuing of the pathogen and heat between 18-25 degrees is needed for the spreading of the pathogen. As the pathogenic infections may be seen in our region as of August, chemical pesticide bilitz is required. Because the density of the pathogen is directly related with the moist and heat, pesticide blitz should be carried out two times as of end of august and middle of September.
    Pesticide blitz;
    Pesticide blitz carried out against the Annual Blot pathogen also meets 1 pesticide blitz of this pathogen. One of the stuff containing ready cupreous, bitertanol and 1% of burgundy emulsion should be used in 2 pesticide blitzes to be carried out as of the second half of September.
    2-     Olive Paleness (Verticillium dahliae)
    Causal agent of the pathogen is fungus. Indicators of the pathogen may sometimes be seen on one or a few branches of the olive tree and sometimes be seen on the whole tree. Indicators of the pathogen are seen as drying the browses and leaves on the trees in April and May and being not fall of until the winter.
    Using trimming tools that are not disinfected may cause the pathogen and deep marks that are not covered with vaccine paste may cause infection.
    Over used nitrogen fertilizers, over watering, trimming tools that are not disinfected, release or raining watering are the matters that increase the acuteness of the pathogen.
    It is possible that the pathogen may be contaminated generally between olives and others like cotton, tomato, pepper, etc. Farming the above mentioned products without any alternation on the same land is the reason of verticillium in olive gardens. Furthermore, ailing olive leaves cause the continuity of the pathogen’s causal agent in the soil and they are the source of contamination. Besides it is possible fot the pathogen to contaminate within close distances by tilling and watering processes. Contamination to long distances is possible with contaminated plant materials. It is also thought that tilling type and time increases the acuteness of the pathogen. Pathogen is seen more in the watering areas. Because of this reason, dripping watering method should be preferred and unnecessary soil tilling and watering should be avoided.
    Pesticide blitz:
    Even there is no medicated pesticide blitz; cultural measures should be taken to avoid the pathogen infection.
    Cultural measures to be taken:
    1-    Ailing branches should be cut and marks should be covered with vaccine paste by applying 2% copper sulphate dilution.
    2-    Trimming tools should be disinfected by dipping into bleacher solution. One tea glass of bleacher is enough for 1 lt. water.
    3-    Nitrogen fertilizers should be used in accordance with the need as to avoid increasing the pathogen sensitivity.
    4-    Olive gardens should not be placed on the groung that holds water and with heavy soil.
    5-    Healthy saplings should be used in the gardens.
    6-    In case the tree or the sapling is wholly dired because of the pathogen, it should be pulled out and burned. Anhydrate lime should be poured on the place where the tree is pulled out and contamination of the pathogen should be avoided. Sapling should not be planted on the same plca in short term.
      5- Damages on Lack of Food Elements
    5.1. Damages on Lack of Food Elements 
    1. Generally halt in growth, becoming short or over browser growth,
    2. Excess root growth or limited growth, 
    3. Decreasing, spalling, shape disorders and general color disorders on leaves,
    4. Flower and fruit spalling in excess amounts, 
    5. Flower and fruit holding in very low amounts, 
    6. Very early or late ripening of fruits, 
    7. Decreasing in fruit amount, flesh-seed rate and decreasing in oil percentage, color problems, 
    8. General differences from the gardens around may be seen on growth and fruit productivity. 
    In case the problems mentioned above are seen, below given subjects should be analyzed and solutions should be found. 
    1. First of all root, body and the leaves of the plant should be checked and pests should be looked up, 
    3.All the applications carried out in the garden should be checked,
    a. Fertilization time, type and amount 
    b. Watering time, type and frequency
    c. Soil processing depth and frequency
    d. Trimming time 
    4. Environmental stresses should be searched, 
    a. Over drought, excessive precipitation 
    b. Excessive heat, excessive cold 
    c. Relative humidity
    d. Hot, dry and strong winds  
    Soil pH 
    Structure of the soil, water holding capacity, receiving the given food elements have a direct effect on productivity and quality. pH makes clear itself according to the lime and salt rate in the soil. When this rate is increased the soil became more alkali, productivity and quality decreases; when it is decreased then productivity and quality increases. pH required for the olive is between 5.5 - 6.5. We accept this as ideal type. All types of supports realized our side is directly sent by the soil to the tree as productivity. In these soils, blackening problem and fertilization problem are not found.
    Soil pH appears after soil analysis, and accordingly fertilization methods and watering methods are advised.
    Soil saltiness: It is named according to the lime and other inorganic material content of the soil. Excess of the lime increases the saltiness.   
    Effective factors: Excess washing, soil erosion, wrong tilling, wrong fertilization, etc. 
    Results: It is directly effective on productivity and quality. Saltiness appears after pH measurements. 
    Most important matter that must be considered in fertilization and watering is to carry out fertilizer and soil applications according to pH and soil saltiness.   
    5,2. Lack of Food Elements and Solutions   
    5.2.1. Indicators of lack of nitrogen and Solution 
    a. Indicators 
    1. Blanches on the leaves 
    2. Leaf patch off on bottom and middle parts 
    3. Decrease in shoot formation 
    4. Decrease in sumac and flower formation
    5. Flower and fruit patch off 
    6. Shrinkage and shape disorders in fruits 
    7. Decrease in flesh rate and oil amount in the fruits   
    b. Reasons 
    1. Soil insufficiency 
    2. Insufficient organic material in the soil
    3. Low soil heat 
    4. Low phosphor amount 
    5. Excess drought    
    c. Solution 
    1. Nitrogenous manure should be given to the soil 
    2. In case the soil conditions are negative, urea dissolved in the water should be given from the leaves 
    3. Planting and digging into soil the leguminous type plants as interlude agriculture.    
    5,2.2, Indicatiors of Lack of Potassium, Reasons and Solution 
    a. Indicators 
    1. Brown edges and yellow bottoms of old leaves
    2. Shrinkage in leaves and fruits 
    3. Decreasing flesh rate and oil amount in the fruit 
    4. Decreasing resistance to cold damage 
    5. Decreasing resistance to pathogens and pests  
    b. Reasons 
    1. Lack of potassium in the soil 
    2. Low cation change capacity in the soil   
    c. Solution 
    1. It is enough to give manures with potassium to the soil. 
    2. One of the potassium sulphate, potassium chloride and potassium nitrate should be dissolved in water and given from the leaves.   
    5,2.3. Lack of Calcium Indicators, Reasons and Solutions 
    a. Indicators 
    1. Bud drying and leaf patch off 
    2. Easy broken and loose buds 
    3. Taken leaves drying before hardening
    4. Sensitivity to cold in young leaves 
    b. Reasons 
    1. Lack of calcium 
    2. Excess magnesium in the soil   
    c. Solutions 
    1. Calcification should be applied in sour soil 
    2. Jip should be applied in salty-alkali soil 
    3. Calcium nitrogenous manure should be used 
    4. If any of the potassium manures will be used, super phosphate manure should be preferred.    
    5.2.4. . Lack of Boron Indicators, Reasons and Solutions 
    a. Indicators
    1. Chlorosis and blanching started on the edges of young leaves 
    2. Shrinkage and patch off in the leaves 
    3. Drying on shoot edges 
    4. Becoming short at the body and shoots 
    5. Dried patched off branches and becoming bush
    6. Shape disorders on the fruits 
    b. Reasons 
    1. Lack of boron in the soil
    2. low pH
    3. Excess lime application
    4. Excess drought    
    c. Solutions 
    1. In the soils with low lime scope, x is applied from soil to boron 
    2. In the places with low lime scope, excess drought and rain, borax is applied to the leaves as solution.    
    5.2.5. Lack of Zinc Indicators, Reasons and Solutions
    a. Indicators 
    1. Blanching between veins 
    2. Shrinkage and shape disorders on the leaves 
    3. Timely and timeless fruit patch off   
    b. Reasons 
    1. Lack of zinc in the soil 
    2. High pH 
    3. Excess phosphor in the soil   
    c. Solution 
    1. In the sour soils, zinc sulphate or zinc clay should be applied,
    2. In the alkali soils, zinc sulphate or zinc clay is applied as solution from the leaves.    
    5.2.5. Lack of Magnesium Indicators, Reasons and Solutions
    a. Indicators 
    1. Blanching as beginning from the leaf edge and greenery through the middle vein and in the leaf bottom, 
    2. Blanching covering the whole leaf
    3. Intense leave patch off in young buds 
    4. Limited growth in the buds,   
    b. Reasons 
    1. Lack of magnesium in the soil 
    2. Potassium and calcium in the soil 
    3. Excess rains    
    c. Solution 
    1. In the soils with lime and alkali, magnesium sulphate should be applied the leaves as solution 
    5.2.6. Lack of Iron Indicators, Reasons and Solutions
    a. Indicators 
    1. Blanching on the young leaves 
    2. Green leaf veins and yellow color between the veins
    3. Drying bud and becoming bush in the advanced levels   
    b. Reasons 
    1. Lack of iron    
    c. Solutions 
    1. Dry and wet iron salts are given to body of the tree. 
    2. Iron solutions are applied from leaf and soil (Iron sulphate or iron clay)
    2. Dolomite should be applied in sour soils 
    3. When the soil conditions are not available, manures with magnesium should be applied from
     6- Trimming
    If the olive tree is left on its own, it indiscriminately branches and knots and branches become close together. Within this closing together, some branches become longer to reach the sun. Branches that are places at the bottom become weaker. Whole tree has a mixed up shape and becomes a forest tree. At the end it starts to become a bush. On the upper branches there will be less and big fruits. There will be no fruits on the bottoms, even there are fruits on the bottoms they will be weak and small. As the upper branches prevent the sun, sun shine will not be able to reach to bottom branches. Big and quality fruits (especially important for our region) are not expected from the branches that do not have sunshine. This case should be known yet the tree is as a sapling and tree should be shaped accordingly.
    After giving this basic information, lets describe the trimming: trimming is the cutting of branches, small branches and buds that prevent us to have big edible olives and to prevent drought product year, establishing a balance between buds feeding the tree and harvest buds, to make easier the works on the tree, to provide a healthy growth for the tree and a strong and healthy branching.
    In trimming it is primarily necessary to make ready all cutting and chopping tolls. Scissors should be repaired, crosscut saws should be notched and axes should be sharpened.
    Under the tree to be trimmed it must be decided whether to make shape trimming, crop trimming or rejuvenation trimming.
    Even the tree is young or old, it should be avoided that trimming should not resulted with cutting the branches for wood or let them grow towards upwards and to the sides. Cutting should be started with cutting thick branches if any. Cutting should be carried out from thicker to thinner.
    Rarefaction and spacing trimming should start from the top and continue towards the bottom. It should not be applied from down to top.
    There are rings that connect the branches in each other. If the cutting is done under this ring, the tree will have problems on feeding. If it is done on the upper parts there will remain lugs. Cutting should be made just up the ring. Thin branches should be cut with scissors and thick branches should be trimmed with an ax. Trimming is easy with such tools like saw and bucksaw. When the thick branches are cut with these tools the cutting place should be burnished. Each tree needs a cutting system. This need differs according to the age of the tree. Accomplished cutter can easily understand the cutting need of the tree by obeying the following rules. Trimming methods are as follows:
    6.1. Shape Trimming
    Shape trimming is applied to saplings that are two or three years old and fed with water and fertilizer after being planted. In a sampling in three years old, only the highest bud in the middle is cut for that year. No other cut is made to give a shape. Next year, three appropriate branches on the sides are chosen as main branch structure. Longest ones amongst the others are cut. No other cut is made. In the third year rest of these three main branches and the ones occupying the center are cut. Now the tree is in a shape of a vase. It is now a chunky tree. This tree now starts to produce in economical meaning. Harvest trimming will be applied for this productive tree.
    6.2. Harvest Trimming
    In the olive trees almost one third of the given food elements, means the fertilizer, is taken by the wood. Wood is not nourishing, it is consumer. There is no leaf on the branches and cub-branches that we call wood. Leaves are on buds and shoots. Wood parts of the tree are fed in the way that prevents buds. This means the shorter the body, branch and sub-branches are the better buds and shoots are fed. This is important for trimming. Shoots coming out of main branch and branches and are shorter than hand span are nourishing. These should be trimmed. While carrying out the trimming according to this base, light trimming should be made if the tree is strong and if the tree is weak then heavy trimming should be made. If the three was full of fruits previous year, then this tree is fed with more fertilizer this year and it is strengthen. If we carry out a heavy trimming on such trees, we will cause to have lesser fruit because it will already give fewer products. If this tree has lived its empty season last year, then it will be proper to make a heavy spacing trimming to have lesser but big fruits instead of having more but small fruits.
    In top adulteration it is necessary to cut the buds going upwards to let the sun reach to bottom branches. We should keep this in mind in all kinds of harvest trimming.
    6.3. Rejuvenation Trimming
    Because of wrong maintenance and lack of maintenance, some olive trees grow as its own and became longer as wood. Some trees also share the same position by aging. We have to rejuvenate these trees with wrong growth balance.
    We are going to carry out a good maintenance for these trees. We are going to make rejuvenation trimming. This trimming can not be wholly applied in a trimming season. It should be completed at least in three years. If we realize this once in a sudden, then the tree will need many years instead of three years. This year three top branches are cut over the branch in the same thickness. Remain branches will get longer with sub branches till the next year. Next year by decreasing the level one step, again suitable trimming is made. By this way new buds are grown. This tree will have fresh branches within tree years. With these new branches the tree becomes more productive, without woods and rejuvenated. Harvest branches are brought closer to the body. Ordinate production will be possible only with the rejuvenation studies we are going to carry out together with other maintenance processes.
    In the new formed olive gardens, saplings are not trimmed till two, three years old. Only weak shoots of them are cleaned and they are watered. Only one leader from the center of this sapling which is two years old in 1990 is taken and no any other cutting is carried out. In 1991 this cutting is carried on one or two branches more. No any other cutting is made. In 1992, straight branches closing the center are trimmed. In 1993 the tree will have the calyx shape and become productive. From now on harvest trimming should be applied to this tree without deforming its shape.
    6.4. Matters to be Careful in Trimming
    Cleaning of the tools to be used in the trimming takes the first place in the matters to be careful in trimming. Tools should be kept in water with 5% hypo for at least 15 minutes. It will be useful for each tool to be in twos. After the trimming process, the trimmed parts should be immediately taken out of the garden. We should be careful not to damage the tree during the trimming. Trimmed parts should immediately be covered with oil of vitriol or 1% burgundy emulsion and contact with air should be avoided. In case we are not available to supply none of these materials, big bruises should be covered with the soil.
    Oil of vitriol: Bitumen + resin mixture or vaccine paste + bitumen mixture.
     7- Soil and Leaf Analysis
    7.1. Taking Soil Sample
    Palce, from where the soil sample is going to be taken, should be divided into parts according to declivity, height and soil type. Separate samples should be taken from each part. In the olive garden from where the soil sample is going to be taken, it should be walked as zigzagging and samples should be taken from at least three places. We should be careful that bucket, oar, etc. that will used in sample taking must be clear of manure and chemical materials. A pit in depth of 50 cm. is dig on the marked places. Soil part in thickness of 3-4 cm. and depth of 20 cm. is taken from one side of the hole with an oar and is put in the bucket. Then a sample is also taken from depth of 20-40 cm. This process is applied for the other holes.
    Samples are collected in separate buckets. In each bucket sample should be cleared from stones and grasses and after being mix up 1 kg. is taken and put in pouches. Name of the garden owner, sample date and soil depth are written on the pouch. Sample should not be taken from road sides, places where there are manure mass, places where bushes are burned and high ground and pit holes.
    7.2. Taking Leaf Sample
    Leaf samples should be taken within November-January months. Leaf samples are taken from four sides of the tree, from a human height point and from one year old harrows. Two corresponding leaves in the middle of the harrow are taken as two stalks and are put in a pouch. At least 200 pieces of leaves should be taken from a garden. As to take a sample representing the whole garden, sides of the garden should be excluded and trees should be marked by walking in the garden like U shape. If the olive garden is small samples should be taken from each tree and if the olive garden is big samples should be taken from one of 2-3 trees.
     8- Harvest
    Olive harvest starts at November and continues till January. Most important factor to be careful during the harvest is to prevent the olive trees from any damage. For this reason tools and equipments to be used in the harvest should be chosen very carefully. It is advised to pick by hand. By this way the risk of damaging the trees or young buds is avoided.
    As long term keeping of the olives after harvest will cause quality loss in the olive, they should be processed on time. Putting the damaged, bruised and out of quality olives together with the good and quality olives also causes quality losses. Such olives should be put in different containers. Mistakes during the transportation and storage also cause quality losses.
    Also long term keeping of oil olives causes olives in poor quality.
    Most important point to be careful during the harvest with machine is the part that the machine hits the tree and vibration feature of the machine.
      9- Sapling Planting
    First of all places where the saplings will be planted are properly marked on the land. A sapling hole in dimensions of 80 x 80 x 80 cm is dig. While digging the hole soil taken from up and soil taken from down are put in the same place. It is useful for the sapling to put some gravel at the bottom of the hole. Then soil taken from up is mixed with barn manure and put in the bottom. After that, sapling is put on this soil and rounded with the soil taken from down and completeşy pressed. Meanwhile some chemical fertilizer should also be put. Finally some water called life water should be given. Square, rectangle, triangle and counter planting systems are applied for garden formation. Square and rectangle is used in flattened lands and triangle and counter planting systems are used in bevel lands.

  • Olive Production Techniques




    Despite the edible olive sector does not have an old past in our country, it is functioned in the structure os small family enterprises till today. Approximately 70% of the units that are recently processing edible olive are about 50 tones and below. This case shows us that in our country small family type enterprises are the majority. Edible olive sector, as in the world, also is on attack in our country. Establishing new infrastructures applying new technologies in these days and developments in this sector in the following years will create an opportunity for our country to process olive in desired qualities and to compete in foreign markets. Edible black olive can be processed from all kinds of olives. But more quality products can be obtained from Gemlik type olives which have more flesh, a small kernel and a thin peel. Even different methods are used for improving the taste of black olives, processes from harvest to improve taste are same. Lets have a look at these processes one by one.


    1. Harvest and transportation: 

    Olives should be harvested when the fruit becomes black and flesh part has a violet purple color. Harvest is an important factor that affects the quality of edible black olive. Early harvested olives are not in a dark black color. Lately harvested olives which are not grown enough easily soften and smashed in brine. Harvest may not be applied for one time, growth fruits should be picked partially. Picked olives should be carried to the plant in wooden or plastic containers with 20-25 kg. and not very deep.


    2. Sizing, sorting:

    Olives brought to brine plant are sized and sorted. If the olive is very ripe, it is only sorted. Sizing process can also be applied after taste improvement. In Bursa aim of sizing is to separate small oil olives and aim of sorting is to separate the wounded, bruise and pathogenic olives from the quality ones.


    3. Washing:

    Before the olives are placed in fermentation tanks they are washed to clean from dust or mud.


    4. Brine and fermentation:

    Below are the methods applied in improving the taste of black olive.


    I- Gemlik method:

    This method has been applied in our country for many years. First the brine is prepared and then water is given on the olives, thus both quality edible olives are gained and production process is shortening. In this method olives can be put in brine in concrete, polyethylene, polyester and fiberglass tanks. But, not withstanding type of the material of brine tanks, height such be about 2 meters and the height of olive to be put in should not be more than 1,80 meters. 10 baume salty water (brine of 10%) is given on the olives and the olives are left in the brine. Brine should cover the olives in whole. There should not be any air gap between the upper cover and liquid surface. After the olives are put in the brine, salt transfer from brine to olive is started and baume decreases to 5-6. Salt of the brine should be frequently controlled with baume aerometer and decreased salt should be added and salt degree of the brine should be kept at 10 baume. Fermentation starts after 2-3 days in the olives put into the brine. To obtain a healthy fermentation, 1-2% rate of last year’s good brine or some sour yoghurt may be added in the brine. In the fermentation, sugars in the olive fruit are transformed into lactic acid by the lactic acid bacteria. Created lactic acid prevents the olives against spoilage. 0.9% rate of lactic acid should be exist in the brine for a good prevention. In the hot weathers salt degree should be increased to 12-13 tp prevent the olive spoilage. During the fermentation the yeast and mould occurs on the surface of the brine should be removed, circulation of the brine and salt acidity controls should be carried out. Most suitable fermentation temperature is about 20°C, in another saying, room temperature. For this reason, temperature fo the brine should be kept in these degrees in the first 2-3 weeks. As the brine time for the olives in our country are the winter months, fermentation goes slow because of low temperature and it can be completed in summer. Thus, olives prepared by this method can be edible within 6-9 months.


    II - Salt-folding method:

    Olives are placed in the fermentation tank as to be one layer salt and one layer olive. Salt is calculated as 10% of the olive weight. Then, covers of the fermentation tank is placed on the olives. A weight in the rate of 10-15% of the olive weight is put on this cover. Olives are kept in the fermentation tank within the salt and under pressure for 1 week. Salty water accumulated under the fermentation tank can be discharged or it can be circulated by adding drinkable water on it. Olives are left for the fermentation in the brine. In case the water accumulated under the fermentation tank is discharged, fermentation is applied to olives with salty water of 13-15 baume. In this method as the salt rate of the brine is 13-18 baume, and olive being kept under high pressure causes the olives to have a corrugated shape. Olives becoming edible takes 6-12 months depending on the type and ripening.


    III – Law Salt Olives: 

    In this method olive fruits are harvested after being blacken and ripen on the tree. Good olives are cleaned, washed and placed in a bin, basket or wooden case as of one layer olive one layer big salts in the rate of 15 kg. salt for 100 kg. olive. Container is closed with a suitable cloth. Containers are put upwards and downwards and from left to right and right to left once in a few days and olives mixing with the salr is provided. Fruits release their water with the effect of water. By this way olives become edible in 3-4 weeks.


    IV – Black olive production by giving air:

    Oxygen amount is increased by giving air into the brine, and by this way, microorganisms are developed and bitter material in the olive disappears with the effect of acidity. Thus, olives taste is improved in a short time leke 3-4 months. Olives that are treated with this method have a black color and a hard grain.


    V – Quick method (Comfy type) olive production:

    In this method olives are put in the tanks with capacity of one ton each to remove their bitter taste and sudcostic solution prepared in the rate of 1,5-2% is added on the olives. When the costic reaches to ¾ of the olive flesh then bitter taste is disappeared and sudcostic dilution is discharged. Container is filled with water, washing process is repeated for 4 times and olives conditioned in the air. During this process color of the olives become black. After this process olives are treated with ferroglikonat or ferrolaktak and the black color becomes constant. Fermentation carried out by keeping the olives in 10-12 baume salty water for 1,5 months. Olives prepared by this method are put in package brine prepared with low salt or they are treated with pasteurization or sterilization. In case it is not possible to carry out a heat treatment, they are served in package brine with 10 baume with pH value of 4,2-4,5 and prepared with protective additives.


    VI – Can Olives: 
    In this method, 20 kg. cans with lac are used as containers. Ripen olives of 10 kg. are filled in cans together with 1 kg. salt and 1 kg. of olive oil is added and can cover is closed and soldered. Cans are put in a cool place are turned upwards and downwards once in 2-3 days. Bitter taste of the olives is disappeared in a short time by the osmosis created by the salt and the fermentation in the closed container.


    VII - Kalamata Olive:

    In this method, as to remove the bitter taste, olives are placed in tanks full of water or in brine consisting 2-3% salt. Water or the brine is changed everyday or once in two days till the bitter taste is removed. Bitter taste is removed in 1-4 weeks depending on the frequency of changing water. Olives, in which bitter taste is removed, are kept in vinegar for 1-2 days or vinegar together with brine in the rate of 8-10% is added to avoid vinegar loss and required sour and taste is provided. These olives are generally served in can boxes with lac and brine in the rate of 8%, and sliced lemon, olive oil and daphne leaf are added. In another method for these olives is to draw the fruits.


    VIII – Drawn Olive:

    Olives with hard flesh are used. Olives are drawn in three places and up to half of the flesh part with a knife with thin blade. Drawn process can also be made by the machines. Drawn olives are placed in containers full of water and the water is changed everyday or every two days. This process is continued till the bitter taste is removed (15-30 days). Olives, in which bitter taste is removed, are put in brine with rate of 8-10% and kept for 8-10 days. At the end of this period, olived are packed in cans together with 5% brine, 1% citric acid, some amount of olive oil, and aromatic materials like lemon slices, garlic and mustard. Containers are fully filled with brine and closed. Olives are kept in packages for 8-10 days and are marketed.


    5. Choosing, classifying, packing: Olives becoming edible are chosen and classified. During these processes, if there are any olives that are not blacken, these olives are blacken with oxidations with contract with the air. In our country edible black olives are served by packing in wooden case, polyethylene bag or lac cans. As to prevent the olives being spoiled during the sales and consume period, these polyethylene or other plastic packs should be closed under nitrogen or carbon dioxide and cans should be pasteurized at 75-95°C.  



    1. Membrane formation:

    On the surfaces of black oil fermentation tanks, especially on the open concrete tanks a membrane is formatted in hot weather and this membrane is named as “kefeke” by the producer. There are many yeast, mould and bacteria in this membrane. Numbers of these mixed microorganisms are changed in every step and shape, color and thickness of the membrane is changed in parallel. For example membrane formatted 1 month after the brine is in a dirty-white color and it becomes green with the hot weather in spring and it becomes white-grey by becoming thicker in some parts. This membrane becomes pink in color by the hot weather and later becomes red and then changes into dirty-grey color again. In case this membrane formatted on the surface of the brine tank is not removed on time, microorganisms in the membrane will break down the lactic acid in the brine and decrease the acid amount. Decreasing acid amount will easier the work of microorganism breaking down the petkin in the brine and causes the olives to be softer. Membrane formation can be prevented best by suing suitable containers.


    2. Softening:

    This spoil is caused by the kefeke leaving long time on the surface of the brine and can also be created as result of insufficient acid and low salt amount in the brine. In case of low acid and salt amount, microorganisms break off and soften the petkin constituting skeleton material of the olive fruit. When the softening continues, as the fruit cells will be broken, and then microorganisms causing the bitter taste by breaking off the oil acid will start to work. This case, which is named as “lipoidosis” by the producers, is the spoilage of the olive fruit in real. To avoid this case, acid and salt in the brine of the olives that will be kept in the tanks for a long time should be continuously controlled and if required salt and acid should be added.


    3. Expansion:

    In the summer, if the acid and salt is low in the brines of black olives kept in hot depots and on ground tanks, expansion pathogen can be found. This pathogen appears by the work of microorganism causing the expansion. If you put your hand in the brine and take off you will see the expansion of the brine on your finger tips. When this case is seen, a new brine should be prepared by using acid and salt and olives should be placed in this new brine.

  • General Explanation


    General Explanation:
    Below are information on olive types and characteristics. But, we have to say that brine edible black oil first recurs to mind when it is said olive. Types named as Gemlik or Trilye have the best taste on brine black edible olive on the world and the best region is the one where MARMARABİRLİK is located on. 
    Bin olive, brine black, brine green, drawn and folding olives are called as natural olives. Natural olives are preferred more by the consumers because of having more nutrition values then the ones flavored with caustic.
    Olive is served to our tables in different color tones. Different colors of the olives served for consumption (for example; in brine black olive the color is brown, dark brown, black and near tones and in drawn olive color is green, yellow and pink tones together) does that show the poor quality of the olive. On the contrary, this case is an important indicator that the olive is treated naturally.
    Also the olives with black color in whole may be served for consumption. This case, besides the type characteristics, may cause from olives being picked and treated in excess ripening period. In such olives the black color may extent from peel to kernel.
    When buying black or dark blue black colored olives with low acid and sold on the streets, it must be thought that these kinds of olives may be flavored with caustic and colored with food gyes. Such kind of olives must be served to our tables after heat treatment (pasteurization and sterilization) and in glass or can containers.
    Consumer should keep in min while buying the olive with black color and low salt that are sold on the streets, that these olives may be spoiled in a short time and may be harmful for health. 
    Other matters to take care: 
    * First of all the product should be in a package and bear a brand and production and expiry date and nutrition values should be written on the label.
    * It may be seen that when the package of brine packed black olives is opened, black color of the olive turns into dark and light brown tones. This is natural. But just after contact with the air the olive should get its first color again.
    * Products with buckled package should not be bought. Because, this case shows the development of microorganisms spoiling the olive and it also shows that the olive did not complete the period required for the flavoring and lack or insufficient heat treatment required for the hygiene.
    * It should be specified on the labels of cans or glass containers after heat treatment that it is pasteurized or sterilized.
    * Olives in rusty and torn packages should not be bought, because they may be packed or stored in places that are not sufficient or hygienic and they may be spoiled in a short time.
    * It is important in visible glass or plastic containers that the olive bigness should be homogenous and brine water should be clear.
    * It is necessary as a quality assurance for the consumer that olive type and company name should be written on the labels of the olives sold on the streets. For this reason consumer should look for a packed sample with the product.
      Aegean Region-1
    Synonyms -: Edremit Yağlık, Şakran, Midilli, Ada Zeytini
    Origins       -: Edremit
    Tree Strength -: Strong
    Fruit Size -: Middle
    Fruit Shape-: almost round, cyclindirical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 85,26
    Grain % -: 14,74
    Periodecite Position -: Middle
    Fertilization Position -: Fertile for itself, but Gemlik, Memecik, Erkence may used as father
    Product Utilization-: oil and edible
    Synonyms - 
    Origins       -: İzmir
    Tree Strength -: Very strong
    Fruit Size -: Middle
    Fruit Shape-: Pear-shaped
    Fruit Flesh % -: 86,88
    Grain % -: 13,12
    Periodecite Position -: Strong
    Fertilization Position -: Partially fertile for itself, for this type Gemlik, Erkence and Ayvalık are used as pollinator.
    Product Utilization-: Oil
    Synonyms -: Kırma, Memeli
    Origins       -: Ödemiş
    Tree Strength -: Very strong
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: Oval
    Fruit Flesh % -: 85,23
    Grain % -: 14,77
    Periodecite Position -: Can give regular product under good care conditions
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Green edible, oil
    Synonyms -: Tekir, Provens, Goloz
    Origins       -: Kemalpaşa
    Tree Strength -: Very strong
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: Almost round
    Fruit Flesh % -: 88,97
    Grain % -: 11,03
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Partially fertile for itself
    Product Utilization-: Green edible
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Akhisar
    Tree Strength -: Strong
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: Cylindirical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 83,76
    Grain % -: 16,24
    Periodecite Position -: Weak
    Fertilization Position -: Fertile for itself
    Product Utilization-: Green edible
    Synonyms -: Erdek su, Su zeytini
    Origins       -: Edincik
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: Round
    Fruit Flesh % -: 89,41
    Grain % -: 10,59
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Black edible
    Synonyms -: İzmir yağlık, yerli yağlık
    Origins       -: İzmir
    Tree Strength -: Strong
    Fruit Size -: Middle
    Fruit Shape-: Elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 86,16
    Grain % -: 13,84
    Periodecite Position -: Strong
    Fertilization Position -: Partially fertile for itself and çakır and ayvalık 
      types may be used as pollinator
    Product Utilization-: Oil
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: İzmir
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Very big
    Fruit Shape-: Elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 87,55
    Grain % -: 12,45
    Periodecite Position -: Very strong
    Fertilization Position -: Infertile for itself. Memecik, Gemlik, Erkence are pollinator..
    Product Utilization-: Green edible
    Aegean Region 2
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Akhisar district yayaköy subdistrict
    Tree Strength -: Strong
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: Round
    Fruit Flesh % -: 85,76
    Grain % -: 14,24
    Periodecite Position -: Strong
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Utlizied as black edible and rarely for oil
    Synonyms -: Taş Arası, Aşıyeli, Tekir, Gülümbe, Şehir, Yağlık
    Origins       -: Muğla
    Tree Strength -: Strong
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: Elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 88,28
    Grain % -: 11,72
    Periodecite Position -: Strong
    Fertilization Position -: Partially fertile for itself and Ayvalık, Çakır, Gemlik,   Erkence and Memeli
    Product Utilization-: Oil and edible
    Synonyms -: Memeli, Emiralem, Akzeytin, Çekişte
    Origins       -: İzmir Menemen district
    Tree Strength -: Good
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: Elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 88,57
    Grain % -: 11,43
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Partially fertile for itself. Memecik, Ayvalık, Gemlik 
      İzmir edible, Erkence
    Product Utilization-: Oil and edible
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Manisa city Akhisar district
    Tree Strength -: Very Strong
    Fruit Size -: Middle
    Fruit Shape-: Elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 88,17
    Grain % -: 14,83
    Periodecite Position -: None
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Black edible
    Origin         : Ödemiş
    Origin         : İzmir
    Origin         : İzmir
    Origin         : Milas
    Origin         : Kuşadası
    Origin         : Kuşadası
    Origin         : Kuşadası
    Origin         : Aydın
    Origin         : Aydın
    Marmara Region - -
    Synonyms -: İznik Çelebi
    Origins       -: İznik
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Very big
    Fruit Shape-: Long cylindirical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 86,95
    Grain % -: 13,05
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Green edible
    Synonyms -: Trilye, Kaplık, Kıvırcık, Kara
    Origins       -: Kocaeli city Gemlik district
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Middle
    Fruit Shape-: Almost round, cylindirical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 85,86
    Grain % -: 14,14
    Periodecite Position -: None
    Fertilization Position -: Partially fertile for itself. Ayvalık, Çakır, Erkence
    Product Utilization-: Black edible
    Synonyms -: Su zeytini, kalamata
    Origins       -: Kocaeli city Karamürsel district
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Very big
    Fruit Shape-: Elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 87,07
    Grain % -: 2,92
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Black edible
    Synonyms -: Tatlı zeytin
    Origins       -: Karamürsel
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Middle
    Fruit Shape-: Round
    Fruit Flesh % -: 84,51
    Grain % -: 15,49
    Periodecite Position -: Partially fertile according to fruitful years
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Green edible
    Origin                                     : Tekirdağ
    Origin                                     : Tekirdağ
    Origin                                     : Tekirdağ
    Origin                                     : Tekirdağ
    Origin                                     : Erdek
    Origin                                     : Edincik
    Origin                                     : Tekirdağ
    Origin                                     : Tekirdağ
    Origin                                     : Iznik
    Mediterranean Region
    Synonyms -: Topak Aşı
    Origins       -: Adana city Tarsus district
    Tree Strength -: Big
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: Round
    Fruit Flesh % -: 88,31
    Grain % -: 11,69
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Green edible
    Synonyms -: Haşebi
    Origins       -: Hatay city Altınözü district
    Tree Strength -: Strong
    Fruit Size -: Small
    Fruit Shape-: Elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 85,53
    Grain % -: 14,47
    Periodecite Position -: Strong
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Oil and black edible
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: İçel city Tarsus district
    Tree Strength -: Very strong
    Fruit Size -: Middle
    Fruit Shape-: Long cylindirical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 71,85
    Grain % -: 28,15
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Black and green edible
    Synonyms -Savrani
    Origins       -Hatay city Altınözü district
    Tree Strength -Middle
    Fruit Size -Small
    Fruit Shape-Cylindirical
    Fruit Flesh % -86,61
    Grain % -13,39
    Periodecite Position -Shows
    Fertilization Position -Unknown
    Product Utilization-Oil
    Synonyms -: Ters Yaprak
    Origins       -: Muğla city Fethiye district
    Tree Strength -: Strong
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: elliptical heart-shaped
    Fruit Flesh % -: 86,43
    Grain % -: 13,57
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Green and black edible
    Origin                                     : Tarsus
    Origin                                     : Silifke
    Origin                                     : Hatay
    Origin                                     : Hatay
    Origin                                     : Hatay
    Origin                                     : Hatay
    Origin                                     : Kahramanmaraş
    Origin                                     : Kahramanmaraş
    AĞAN NO 6;
    Origin                                     : Kahramanmaraş
    AĞAN NO 7;
    Origin                                     : Kahramanmaraş
    Origin                                     : Hatay
    Origin                                     : Kahramanmaraş
      Southeast Anatolian Region 1
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Gaziantep city Nizip district
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Small
    Fruit Shape-: Elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 86,09
    Grain % -: 13,91
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Green and black edible
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Mardin city Derik district
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Middle
    Fruit Shape-: Almost round elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 82,79
    Grain % -: 17,21
    Periodecite Position -: Strong
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Green and black edible, for oil
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Gaziantep city Nizip district
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Very small
    Fruit Shape-: Almost round elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 84,29
    Grain % -: 15,71
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Oil, Black edible, palming up to 50%
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Gaziantep city Nizip district
    Tree Strength -: Strong
    Fruit Size -: Very big
    Fruit Shape-: Round
    Fruit Flesh % -: 88,90
    Grain % -: 11,10
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Green edible, drawn pnik olive
      Southeast Anatolian Region 2
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Gaziantep city Kilis district
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Very small
    Fruit Shape-: Round
    Fruit Flesh % -: 82,25
    Grain % -: 17,75
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Oil
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Gaziantep city Nizip district
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Very small
    Fruit Shape-: Almost round elliptical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 81,31
    Grain % -: 18,69
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Unknown
    Product Utilization-: Oil, black edible
    Synonyms -:
    Origins       -: Gaziantep
    Tree Strength -: Middle
    Fruit Size -: Big
    Fruit Shape-: Long Ellipitical
    Fruit Flesh % -: 84,57
    Grain % -: 15,43
    Periodecite Position -: Shows
    Fertilization Position -: Onknown
    Product Utilization-: Oil , edible
    Origin                                     :Nizip
    Origin                                     :Nizip
    Origin                                     :Nizip
    Origin                                     :Nizip
    Origin                                     :Nizip
    Origin                                     :Nizip
    Origin                                     :Tatayn
    Origin                                     :Tatayn
    Origin                                     :Tatayn
    Origin                                     :Tatayn
    Origin                                     :Tatayn
    Origin                                     :Derik
    Origin                                     :Derik
    Origin                                     :Derik
    Origin                                     :Derik
    Origin                                     :Derik
    Origin                                     :Derik
      Blacksea Region
    Origin                                     :Samsun
    Origin                                     :Samsun
    Origin                                     :Samsun
    Origin                                     :Samsun
    Orijini                                     :Trabzon
    Origin                                     :Trabzon
    Origin                                     :Trabzon
    Origin                                     :Artvin
    Origin                                     :Artvin
    TREE NO 1;
    Origin                                     :Sinop
    TREE NO 2;
    Origin                                     :Sinop
    TREE NO 4;
    Origin                                     :Sinop
    TREE NO 5;
    Origin                                     :Sinop
    TREE NO 6;
    Origin                                     :Sinop

  • Olive Production In Turkey And The World


    Olive groves comprise approximately 2.2% of the cultivated agricultural areas in our country. According to the statistical data of year 2003, there are 101.600.000 olive trees in our country; with an average yield of 1.200.000 tons per year. 365.000 tons of this production is used as table olive, while the remaining 835.000 tons for olive oil production (130.000 tons). 


    Aydın, İzmir, Muğla, Balıkesir, Bursa, Manisa, Çanakkale, Tekirdağ, Hatay are the most important olive producing provinces of our country.


    Status of olive production in Turkey per years 


    Total olive  production (TONS)

    Table olive production (TONS)

    Olive for olive oil  production (TONS)

    Olive oil production (TON)



















































    Olive agriculture makes living of approximately 500.000 families. In Turkey 65-70% of olive harvested is processed for olive oil production, while 30-35% for table use.

    Varieties of black table olives in our country: Gemlik, Uslu, Edincik Su.

    Green varieties and varieties with caustic and for filling: Domat and Yamalak Sarısı

    Varieties of Ayvalık (Edremit) and Memecik: green, pink scratched, black and oily.

    Contrary to other regions of Turkey and to the world, over 80% of the harvested olive is black table olive in Marmara Region.

    Functions of Marmarabirlik in Turkey in brine table olive:



    Market director

    Innovations Leader


    Our Association purchases 60-70% of Gemlik and Edincik Su Varieties of olives harvested in Marmara Region and processes them as black table olives.


    There are 890.000.000 olive trees on the World. The largest producer world wide countries are SpainTurkeyUSAMoroccoGreece and Italy. In the world, Turkeyhas the second place in the table olive production and the first place in the black olive production.


    World table olive production is approximately 1.500.000 tons per year.  


    Production percentages of the countries;

    • Spain 25%
    • Turkey 12%
    • USA   8%
    • Syria 8%
    • Morocco 7%
    • Greece 7%
    • Italy 5%
    • Others 28%

    Considering olive exportation on the world, USA covers 50% of the total exportation volume, followed by Morocco with 20% of the volume. Turkey covers 9-10% of this total exportation volume.


    In our country, activities to improve the number of olive trees are generally haphazard and individual. However, referring to the Syrian example, it can be concluded that such activities are very poor. This situation should be regarded as a governmental policy; improvement should be assured according to a long run and detailed plans and by encouraging entrepreneurs by various incitements. In order to improve the production and quality, characteristics of each olive cultivation area and best suiting variety, table olive or oil olive, for that area should be specified clearly. Otherwise cultivators may switch out of one variety to another variety for higher economical output.


    As to the problems of olive business in our country; effective periodicity and very low yield per tree result in production problems. To overcome this problem an affective training should be given to the farmers. The farmers should be educated about trimming, watering, fertilization and medication. Ministry of Agriculture and Universities should act as the initiators of such activities.


    Insufficient technological knowledge and equipment is the most common problems of the industrialist and tradesmen; on the other hand those owning sufficient technological knowledge and equipment, this time, suffer from low capacity usage ration. In our country, “Below stairs” production is widespread, which leads to unfair competition, to production that is out of regulations and codex; this illegal or unregistered production not taking the consumer health into consideration, gives significant harm to the economy of our country.


    In Turkey, brined black table olive is processed according to traditional methods; as the olive is processed with salt in these methods, producers encounter with serious disqualifications in exportation, because of which the market of the product remains limited to the sales in local markets. In recent years, there have been significant developments in olive processing for exportation.

    Being in the world the second in table olive production, the first in black table olive production, fifth in olive oil production and fourth in the number of olive trees, is an indication for us that we can play an effective role in International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) using our production capacity efficiently.